COMMISSIONON HIGHER EDUCATION
COMMISSIONSTANDARDS, NCATE STANDARDS, AND
STATEDEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STANDARDS
TEACHEREDUCATION PROGRAMS AT SOUTH CAROLINA
The members of the Commission on Higher EducationStatewide Evaluation Team,presentedalphabetically, were as follows:
· Dale G. Andersen, Past-President of AACTE and Professorof Higher
Education, University of Nevada,Las Vegas.
· Ronald G. Joekel, Executive Director Emeritus, PhiDelta Kappa International, Retired Professor of Higher Education, University ofNebraska-Lincoln.
· Bernice Bass de Martinez, Senior Vice President forAcademic Affairs, Indiana
State University, Terre Haute, Indiana.
The dates of each of the National Council on Accreditationof Teacher Education/State Board of Education/South Carolina Commission onHigher Education site visits are shown below.These occurred over the period extending from October, 1996, when thefirst of the visits was conducted at the University of South Carolina-Columbia,through April, 1999, when the last of the eleven visits was made to ClemsonUniversity.Also shown below is thename of the Commission on Higher Education representative that served on eachof the visits.
1. University of South Carolina-Columbia; October 26-30, 1996(Anderson).
2. Winthrop University; October 25-29, 1997 (Bass de Martinez).
3. The Citadel; February 19-23,2000 (Joekel).
4. University of South Carolina-Spartanburg; February 28-March 4,1998 (Joekel).
5. College of Charleston; October 3-7, 1998 (Bass de Martinez).
6. Coastal Carolina University; September 26-30, 1998 (Anderson).
7. University of South Carolina-Aiken; February 6-10, 1999(Joekel).
8. South Carolina State University; February 20-24, 1999 (Bass deMartinez).
9. Francis Marion University; March 20-24, 1999 (Bass deMartinez).
10.LanderUniversity; March 27-31, 1999 (Joekel).
11.ClemsonUniversity; April 10-14, 1999 (Anderson)
A dynamic and far-reaching reform movement seeking greateraccountability and effectiveness in the field of education has been underway inthe United States since the early 1980’s.The teaching profession was first jolted into action by the report ofthe National Commission on Excellence in Education(1983), A NATION AT RISK:THEIMPERATIVE FOR EDUCATION REFORM.For the first several years following the release of this report,attention was focused largely on teaching and learning in the world of P-12education.Concern with the lack ofquality and with alleged weaknesses and shortcomings in public elementary andsecondary schools dominated the early criticisms of the American educationsystem.In recent years, however,attention has been broadened to include a call for rigorous evaluation andimprovement of teacher education and in the preparation of teachers andeducational personnel in the colleges and universities of the nation aswell.At all levels there has beenintense focus on two vehicles for improvement.The first of these has been the development and implementation ofbenchmarks for achievement, often referred to as standards-based reform.The second has been a raising of theaccountability bar relative to the expenditure of time, effort, energy, andmoney in educational practices and programs.
This national concern has been heightened of late by anincreased awareness of an imminent shortage of P-12 educators.Some estimates place the number of teachersthat will be needed at 2.2 million over the next ten years.Acknowledging that some of these may comefrom the reserve pool of teachers who are not currently in the workforce forwhatever reason, there still will be a considerable strain on the programs thatprepare teachers.This will be felt notonly in the increase in the numbers needed, but also in the call for higherlevel of competence and effectiveness in these neophyte teachers.
The constant and enduring goal of educational reform atall levels, including higher education, has been to increase the academicperformance of the children and youth of the nation.They must be the beneficiaries.The direct linkage between the preparation of teachers and learning inP-12 schools has been captured in wording contained in the 1996 report of theNational Commission on Teaching and America’s Future,WHAT MATTERS MOST:TEACHINGFOR AMERICA’S FUTURE:
There should be a caring, competent, and qualifiedteacher in every classroom—a goal worthy as an “A” on a report card and asunconventional as apple pie.
What teachers know and do is the most importantinfluence on what students learn.Competentand caring teachers should be a student right.
From the outset there has been a general recognition thateducation is so vitally important to the national mission that it must be theresponsibility of a very wide array of stakeholders.Thus, there has been an assumption of assurance that thesestakeholders should be involved in planning and implementing reform measuresincluding not only teachers, school administrators and parents, but also policymakers, business representatives, spokespersons for groups with vestedinterests, citizens at large, and others.As a result of urgent demands and appeals for greater accountability inthe preparation of teachers and other educational personnel, higher educationleaders have also become involved, especially in recent years.
Models of increased effectiveness in teacher education–informed by research and tested through practice – have been under developmentover the past fifteen years.Theseefforts have also focused on the development of standards as to the qualitiesof knowledge, skills, and competencies both beginning and accomplished teachersshould possess.Progress towardgreater accountability in this regard has been led by a number of influentialprofessional organizations.In therealm of standards, the Chief State School Officers have evolved benchmarks forneophyte teachers through the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and SupportConsortium (INTASC).Concurrently, theNational Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) has created standardsfor national certification of accomplished teachers.
The Holmes Group, a consortium of research universities,developed paradigms for teacher education programs that incorporate reform inteacher education with the reform of the teaching profession as a whole.Included in these reforms has been thenotion of professional development schools, an increased emphasis oncontinuous, field-based experiences, and collaborative research.Additionally, the Association of TeacherEducators (ATE) has created a set of standards for teachers of teachers –thosewho hold positions in colleges, schools or departments of education inuniversities.
The most significant impact in promoting accountability inteacher education, however, has undoubtedly been that rendered by the NationalCouncil for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), the premiernational accrediting body in teacher education.The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education is aspecialized non-governmental professional accrediting agency founded in1954.It is governed by both thepracticing and preparation arms of the education profession.Its essential function is to provideprofessional judgment about the quality of the education unit and to encouragecontinuous improvement of the unit through a voluntary peer reviewprocess.There are over 30 differentconstituent members of NCATE including a wide array of organizations representingpractitioners, teacher educators, academic content specialty groups, and policymakers.A sample of organizationsinvolved in forming NCATE includes the American Association of Colleges forTeacher Education, the National Education Association, Council of Chief StateSchool Officers, National School Boards Association, National Association ofState Boards of Education, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics,National Science Teachers Association, Association for Childhood EducationInternational, Council for Exceptional Children, Association for EducationalCommunications and Technology, American Association of School Administrators,American Educational Research Association, American LibraryAssociation/American Association of School Librarians,and National Board for Professional TeachingStandards.Together, these memberstakeholders developed a shared vision of teacher education that revolvesaround the belief that every child should be taught by teachers who arewell-prepared and competent.NCATE hasevolved a set of continuously updated, quality standards in areas of evaluationthat are critical to the preparation of teachers.
Institutions seeking national accreditation must meet 20specific standards in four general categories (Appendix 1).Standards are applied at theinitial (undergraduate) and advanced(graduate) levels.The four generalcategories include:(1)Design of Professional Education, (2) Candidatesin Professional Education, (3) Professional Education Faculty, (4) and The Unitfor Professional Education. NCATEstandards in the above categories address quality issues in the organization ofthe curriculum, field experience expectations, presence of adequate resourcesfor support of programs, admission and retention requirements for candidates,faculty standards, and proper governance structures.There are a number of themes that are expressed within the abovestandards.The need for a conceptualframework based on a defensible knowledge base that provides the foundation forall programs,the need for diversityamong faculty and students, the use of technology to enhance theteaching-learning process,andproviding classroom experiences in a variety of settings to include exposure tostudents of diverse racial, ethnic and socio-economic background as well asstudents with special needs.Inaddition, through affiliations with the leading national learned societies andprofessional associations in the numerous content and/or subject matter areas,NCATE has adopted sets of curriculum guidelines in a wide array of specialtyareas.When both general and specialtystandards are met by programs of preparation, there is assurance thatcandidates in those programs are well familiar with the knowledge andapplications necessary to be successful teachers.
NCATE standards are monitored through a system ofapplication of the standards.Thisbegins with self-examination by an institution’s professional unit in teachereducation and its preparation of an Institutional Report.Next, the institution submits a complete setof curriculum materials (folios)foreach program that prepares teachers to the appropriate national professionalorganization.Those materials undergo astringent review by subject matter specialists who are recognized for theirexpertise in that discipline.Theseexpert reviewers apply the folio materials toward the standards that have beenestablished by each particular subject matter specialty.A set of 10 pre-conditions must be met bythe institution before it may continue further in the accreditationprocess.Next, accumulated evidencesare examined and a set of judgments are made as to whether each standard hasbeen met or not by a visiting Board of Examiners (BOE) made up of rigorouslytrained professional educators.TheBoard of Examiners completes areportreflecting whether the institution met the 20 standards at the initialand advanced levels.Each institution receives a copy of the BOEreport and has the right of rejoinder to NCATEon any of the decisions made by the BOE team.
Finally, utilizing the series of written reports andassessments, a set of independent objective evaluations are made which resultin a decision on accreditation by the NCATE Unit Accreditation Board(UAB).The UAB is composed of no morethan 32 members; one-third are representatives from teacher education,one-third are teachers, one-sixth are state and local policy makers, andone-sixth are from professional specialty academic areas.In addition, one representative is from astudent organization and one representative is from the public-at-large.The UAB renders separate accreditationdecisions for the initial teacher preparation and/or advanced levels of theprofessional education unit in the college or university.One of the five following accreditation decisionsis issued for each of both levels (initial or advanced).
Initial accreditation or continuous accreditation.
1. Accreditation with stipulations.
2. Continuing accreditation with probation.
3. Denial of accreditation.
4. Revocation of accreditation.
If fully accredited, the professional unit is accreditedfor a period of five years.At thattime, it must be reviewed for continuing accreditation and a new decisionrendered.Institutions have the rightof appeal for decisions rendered by the UAB.
Through its national, voluntary accreditation standardsfor teacher education programs and its partnership with some 46 states thatlink national accreditation with state teacher licensure, NCATE has had aprofound impact on the improvement of teacher education programs.Over 500 colleges, schools and/ordepartments of education in institutions of higher education are currentlyaccredited by NCATE and another 75 are candidates or pre-candidates foraccreditation.NCATE has led the chargetoward standards-based reform and in meeting the demands for accountability inteacher education programs across the nation.It has blended a devotion to higher standards in accrediting teachereducation with an emphasis on collaboration between P-12 schools and universityprograms.It is now in the process ofchampioning performance-based standards and the accreditation of professionaldevelopment schools.
It was within this national context that the SouthCarolina Commission on Higher Education took the initiative in 1995 of addressingaccountability in teacher education in a most creative way for the State ofSouth Carolina.The Commission onHigher Education assumed leadership in creating a truly innovative partnershipwith NCATE and the South Carolina State Department ofEducation (SDE).This“cutting edge” leadership brings these three entities, each with related yetseparate aspects of improving the quality of teacher education programs, into apartnership.The Commission on HigherEducation and the South Carolina State Department of Education have authorityand responsibility for education in South Carolina, the Commission in regard topublic higher education in the State of South Carolina (including teachereducation) and the State Department of Education with responsibility forP-12 schools and all state teacher-traininginstitutions and certification programs.
Commendations are in order for representatives of theCommission and State Department of Education who examined and decided topartner with NCATE for the accreditation of programs in South Carolina publicinstitutions of higher education.Oncethis decision was made, it became imperative that an agreement be formalizedwith NCATE.The formal agreement thatwas executed called for representatives of the South Carolina Commission onHigher Education andthe StateDepartment of Education to serve on the Board of Examiners team visiting eachpublic higher education institution preparing educators.These members of the BOE team had to havetraining in the NCATE process and application of the NCATE Standards.The Commission on Higher Education employedoutside consultants who had extensive knowledge of the NCATE process, thoroughtraining and experience in applying the standards, and who were not currentlyserving on NCATE Board of Examiner Teams to be their representative for eachinstitution visit.The StateDepartment of Education provided State NCATE training for those individuals whowere not already trained to serve as members of the Board of Examiners.
The NCATE Board of Examiner Team reviewed the EducationUnit in each institution and evaluated all programs for which NCATE approvedcurriculum standards existed.The StateDepartment of Education team members served on the Board of Examiners and alsohad responsibility for reviewing all programs for initial licensure not coveredby NCATE curriculum standards, e.g., Business Education, Foreign Language, andCounselor Education.The consultantrepresenting the Commission on Higher Education served on the BOE team andreviewed all advanced graduate programs not covered by NCATE curriculumstandards.Table 1 and Table 2 whichfollows on the next two pages will visually present the roles of each group.
Under the tripartite arrangement, reviews of teacher educationprograms in each of the public institutions in South Carolina that have teachereducation programs are conducted employing joint visits and evaluationactivities by a single Board of Examiners Team made up of representatives ofthe three agencies.Applying qualitystandards of each of the partners, the CHE/NCATE/SDE Board of Examinersachieves rigorous evaluations of the various teacher education programs at eachof the eleven public colleges or universities in South Carolina.This promises to ensure success in meetingSouth Carolina’s critical need for large numbers of high quality, new teachersin the next decade.
Now let us turn to an analysis of the state context forteacher education in light of the variety of initiatives that have occurred inSouth Carolina.
There are eleven public institutions of higher educationin the State of South Carolina that offer preparation programs for educatorsleading to licensure to be employed in theP-12 schools.Each institutionhas a specific role and mission statement as do each of the teacher educationunits.Each mission statement is clear,explicit and highly germane to the teacher education programs offered by theinstitution.The range of programsoffered by the eleven institutions is comparable to offerings in othergeographic regions of the United States.Obviously, not all institutions offer a full range of programs, norshould they.However, programs existto prepare teachers, administrators, counselors, etc. in one or more of theinstitutions so the State is being served.
The continuing demand for teachers and other educationalpersonnel for the P-12 schools in South Carolina continues to grow.In the Summaryof 1998 Turnover Rate in SouthCarolina School Districts (dated December 10, 1998), 3,685teachers werereported as leaving the State or moving to another position within theState.In comparison, the SouthCarolina Center for Teacher Recruitment reports in the 1999 Teacher Supply and Demand Report that4,153teachers left the State or moved to another position within theState.These figures indicate that thedemand for teachers has increased.Moreteachers left the profession or moved in 1999 than in 1998, an increase of 468teachers or a 12% difference.
Additionally, there is a concern about the decreasingnumber of minority teachers in the South Carolina workforce in comparison tothe overall teaching force.The Summaryof 1998 Turnover Rate in SouthCarolina School Districts found that 934 minority teachers (or 18% of allnew hires) were hired in 1998.Thiscomparesto 1,038 (or 16% of the newhires) in 1999 as reported in the 1999 TeacherSupply and Demand Report.Overall, the number of new hires for 1998totaled 5,213as compared to 6,513 in 1999.Nevertheless, the overall number of minority teachers leaving theteaching force continues to increase faster than the number of those enteringthe field.This is evidenced by thefact that of the 3,945 initial certificates issued between July 1, 1998, andJune 30, 1999, only 654 (or 16.58%) were issued to African-Americans(source:South Carolina Center for Teacher Recruitment website.) Of that number, 3,200 (or 8l.1%) were issued toWhites.Of those receiving initialcertificates, not all seek and/or accept employment.
Nearly one-third of all new hires were recent graduates ofSouth Carolina institutions.Morespecifically, that was 2,141 (or 33%) of the 6,513 new teachers hired in 1999(source:South Carolina Center for Teacher Recruitment 1999 Teacher Supply and Demand Survey, November 15,1999.According to the Governor’s Commission on Teacher QualityPreliminary Report, less than one half of graduates from the State’s teachereducation programs choose to teach in its classrooms.
In 1998, of the 5,864 (5,214 excluding in districttransfers) teachers hired with new contracts, 1,655 were new graduates of SouthCarolina institutions.Excludingteachers who transferred assignments within districts that year, contractsissued to new graduates of South Carolina institutions equaled 32% of thetotal.
These data are typical of what is occurring across theUnited States.With anaging teaching population and earlyretirement programs,South Carolina iscomparable to other states in needing additional teachers to meet futureneeds.Accompanying this is anincrease in the number of children in P-12 school across the country.Additionally, a number of the innovations toimprove P-12 education are focusing on the need to reduce class size.With mandates to provide education forchildren with special needs, there is a need for more educators to serve thispopulation.Across the country, thereis a shortage of mathematics teachers, science teachers outside of generalscience/biology, and special education.Looking at the number of graduates and students enrolled, this sametrend is reflected in South Carolina.Lastly, with changing demographics in the United States, there is ashortage of teachers who represent diversity, especially racial diversity.There is a tremendous influx of studentswho do not speak English and a demand for teachers who have English as a secondlanguage.South Carolina will facethis need, if it already hasn’t, in the near future.It would appear that the 11 institutions preparing educators havethe capacity to meet the general needs of South Carolina for the future.Almost all institutions have programs of lowenrollment that could accommodate additional students.However, a mechanism for increasing thenumber of graduates who choose to enter the classroom will be needed to meetthe increasing demand for new teachers.The one area where the state may not be prepared is in teachers whospeak a second language.
INSTITUTIONS OFFERINGEDUCATION PROGRAMS
The eleven public institutions offering teacher educationprograms can be further described as either being research or comprehensiveinstitutions.
Research Institutions, (institutions that focus on research activities,producing new knowledge, and provide the majority of terminal degreeprogramming in the State):
2. Universityof South Carolina-Columbia
Comprehensive Institutions, (institutions that provide the breadth ofdegrees and focus on the applied arts and sciences and the professions, and donot offer terminal doctoral degree programs, with one exception):
1. College of Charleston
2. The Citadel
3. Coastal Carolina University
4. Frances Marion University
5. Lander University
6. South Carolina State University *
7. University of South Carolina-Aiken
8. University of South Carolina-Spartanburg
9. Winthrop University
*offers Ed.D. degree in EducationalAdministration
As a result of visits to the eleven South Carolina publicinstitutions, the visiting NCATE Board of Examiners teams prepared reports asdid the Commission on Higher Education consultants.From this intensive review of teacher education programs, severalgeneralizations can be made that speak to the quality and efficiency of theprograms in education throughout the state.More specifically, there are patterns of strengths as well as conditionsneeding attention.The overallmission/vision in education as designed and in operation throughout the Stateis good.The mission of providingquality teacher preparation to meet the needs of the area served by eachinstitution was consistent.Requiringthat each institution participate in the joint NCATE, SDE, CHEevaluation/accreditation process forced institutions to examine their programsand make changes to meet the standards.As a result, a common language has been translated across all campusesresulting in increased awareness and attention to performance standards.The implementation of the teacher inductionprogram, Assisting, Developing, and Evaluation of Professional Teaching(ADEPT), has also made a major impact on performance assessment.To move programs from being “good” and“consistent” to very good or excellent, some changes will need to occur. Thereis a need to move vision to systematic and consistent application andtranslation into practice.For example,almost every institution has undergone an extensive review of its conceptualframework/knowledge base and made significant changes in its programs based onthe conceptual framework.However, thisis not applied evenly across the curriculum of all programs and in many cases,has just been implemented and it cannot be fully assessed until students havegone through the program from beginning to end.While the State’s NCATE initiative is cutting edge, it takes timeand resources to support change and to ensure that the change becomes routineand systematic.The slower pace ofchange is fairly typical across the nation and should not be viewed with alarmin South Carolina.The reality is thatchange takes time.
STATEWIDE GENERALIZATIONS AND CONCERNS
There were a number of features that were observed onnearly all or most of the campuses visited and are presented here asgeneralizations that need to be addressed.
1. Theapplication of the conceptual framework (the rationale and organizingprinciples that guide the development of the curriculum for professionaleducation including the categorization of knowledge) is uneven at nearly allthe institutions visited.As evidencedin seven of the eleven reports filed, the NCATE standard addressing theimplementation and integration of the framework for education was passed withweaknesses.In several institutions,there was a problem of not infusing the conceptual framework into the advanced(graduate) degree programs.Because theframework defines the educational unit andestablishes the context for its own assessment, attention should be paidto the manner in which the conceptual framework is incorporated into thecurriculum.The consistent infusion ofthe conceptual framework across the curriculum is not unique to South Carolina.With the development and infusion of the conceptualframework being of the utmost importance for all programs in the unit,institutions throughout the United States have spent a great deal of energyreviewing, revising, and implementing their conceptual model.
i. Institutions who were identified as having a weakness in theinfusion of the conceptual framework across the curriculum willbe required to address this weakness andreport to NCATEhow they have takensteps to remedy this weakness.At thetime of the NCATE Continuing Accreditation visit, the visiting team will seekevidence of how the weakness has been removed.These institutions should be addressing this weakness now.
ii. A workshop sponsored by either the Commission or the StateDepartment of Education bringing together the key persons from each campusfocusing on the conceptual framework and problems associated with infusing itacross the curriculum would be another way to attack this issue.Inviting someone from NCATE or a person theyrecommend to conduct the workshop would provide a broader perspective for theparticipants.
2. Thereis a lack of diversity by race and ethnicity in faculties and students,excepting at South Carolina State University (and at Francis Marion in terms ofstudents).The NCATE standard that addressesthe composition of faculty was reported as not met or met with weaknesses atseven of the eleven institutions.Interms of the composition of students, the associated NCATE standard wasreported as not met or met with weakness at six of the eleveninstitutions.Having diversity in thefaculty and the students in the education program ensures a broader view of thediscipline and the inclusion of multiple voices.Exposure in a diverse setting challenges those in the environmentto become more comfortable in diverse settings.Again, this is not a problem unique only to South Carolina.It is a problem in many institutions acrossthe United States.With changingdemographics of the United States in terms of race and ethnicity, it isimportant that teacher preparation programs also reflect this diversity.
i. Individual institutions and teacher education units need to bemore proactive in recruiting diversity among students and faculty.Although institutions have a recruiting plan,the education unit also needs to have a plan and strategy for recruitingdiversity.The best recruiting done onmost campuses is by the athletic teams.Studying how they plan and approach recruitment might be helpful indeveloping the teacher education unit plan.
ii. Teacher Education units at individual institutions need todevelop closer ties to P-12 schools and make special efforts to encourage andrecruit qualified minority students.Partnering with the South Carolina Center for Teacher Recruitment’sTeacher Cadet Program is a step in the right direction for institutions totake.The establishment of a FutureEducators Club with students and faculty serving as mentors has also beensuccessful in recruiting students of diversity.
iii. Teacher Education units at individual institutions that workwith the P-12 schools can identify outstanding minority teachers and encouragethem to pursue graduate studies.Again, faculty serving as mentors for these teachers has proven to besuccessful at other institutions.Itmay also be necessary to provide incentives to these minority P-12 teachers inthe recruiting process.Scholarships,graduate assistantships, loan forgiveness, etc. are common ways otherinstitutions provide incentives.SouthCarolina’s teacher loan program currently provides loans to teachers if theirgraduate degree leads to a new area of certification.The state should explore ways to expand this program to assistminority teachers in seeking graduate degrees in their teaching field.
iv. At the state level, a special task force to address theproblem should be assembled to involve stakeholders and policy makers indeveloping a plan.This is an approachthat has been taken in other states.Since this is a statewide problem, leadership from the Commission onHigher Education to establish such a task force would highlight the seriousnessof the problem and a desire to seek solutions.
v. In terms of increasing the diversity of faculty, specialincentives and commitment from administrators and faculty to seek out qualifiedfaculty candidates personally has proven successful in some cases.In addition to putting faculty positionannouncements in appropriate publications, visits by administrators to campuseswhere they personally meet prospective candidates face to face provides anopportunity to “sell” the institution to the candidate.Attractive materials that are left with thecandidate and put forth the best features of the institution and the teachereducation program are also a must.Follow-up phone calls to candidates, particularly from other minorityfaculty, also help candidates to know they are wanted by the institution andthe unit.
vi. Many institutions, and some in South Carolina as well, areusing a strategy of “growing their own” in dealing with the faculty diversityissue.In some instances, outstandingminority teachers are identified and recruited to participate in a programwhereby the institution assisted the candidate with financial support in orderto obtain an advanced degree.Thecandidates’ commitment is toagree toreturn to the campus as a faculty member for a specified number of years afterthe candidate has earned the advanced degree.
3. Facultyscholarship was uneven as measured by the review of faculty vita; more attentionneeds to be placed on defining the role and purpose of faculty scholarship,particularly for faculty teaching in advanced and terminal degreeprograms.Also in this regard, the term“graduate faculty member” needs to be defined and clear criteria for appointmentand recognition of graduate faculty beestablished.For example, insome institutions a new hire with a terminal degree was automaticallydesignated as a member of the graduate faculty, while at other institutions thefaculty member was required to demonstrate a level of scholarly activity thatgoes beyond the terminal degree to earn the graduate faculty distinction.
i. Professional development plans for each individual facultymember including goals for scholarly activities should be implemented and tiedto the faculty evaluation process.Administrators reviewing the plans need to help the faculty memberachieve those goals by supporting the proposed endeavors.Financial resources must be made availableto assist the faculty member in increasing his/her scholarly activities.Business and industry dedicate a great dealof financial support to professional development while typically those ineducation have small amounts available.Each teacher education unit needs to have a reasonable amount of moneydedicated to professional development.
ii. All faculty should be expected to engage in scholarlyactivities each year.This does notmean that teaching and service should be given lesser priority.To be an outstanding teacher or provider ofservice, faculty members must be current in their academic expertise.Scholarly activity does not necessarilymean research and publication, but it can take on many differentcharacteristics.However, each teachereducation unit needs to identify what scholarly activities means to the unitand faculty should be active participants in determining this policy
iii. Workshops on special topics such as using technology as ateaching resource need to be provided continually for faculty members.Topics need to be identified by eachteacher education faculty along with administrators.Funds must be made available to bring the necessary expertise tothe campus to conduct the workshops and time must be made available for facultymembers to engage in the workshops.South Carolina has two Centers of Excellence that focus on educationaltechnology and their expertise should be utilized in this process.
iv. It is important to help new, young faculty members develop ascholarly agenda and support them with mentors and other resources.Frequently, new faculty members are given aheavy teaching load and duties that others do not want to do.These duties leave new faculty with littletime to develop their scholarly activities agenda.It is recommended that each new faculty member be assigned to amentor who is an outstanding faculty member and committed to helpingothers.Most new faculty members needsomeone to guide them and help them.
v. The term graduate faculty means different things to differentpeople and this presents a concern that needs to be addressed.There needs to be agreement on what thequalifications for graduate faculty membership are across the campuses.The appointment of a system-wide group withrepresentatives from each campus should develop guidelines for appointment toand recognition of graduate faculty.Development of consistent terminology and policywould help alleviate this concern.The committee should be encouraged toexamine other graduate institutions outside of South Carolina to obtain abetter sense of what is taking place nationally.
4. Ahigh number of professional development and contract courses are being offeredby various campuses without the provision of consistent guidelines for use ofthese courses with regard to application to degree credit andre-certification.Additionally, anunevenness in the criteria used to determine who should teach the courses wasfound across the institutions.Thepurposes of graduate level courses as part of a graduate degree and thepurposes of courses designed to help a classroom teacher on a specific topicare quite different.Furthercomplicating this issue is who teaches the course.Across the country, graduate colleges have firm guidelines inregard to who can teach classes offered for graduate credit and what theacademic expectations are for these courses.The problem arises when classroom teachers orschools identify a special topic/issue they wish to addressthrough higher education courses.Almost without exception P-12 teachers want credit for theirinvolvement.In many cases, P-12teachers have already identified one of their group to be the instructor andthe course is to be taught in the school, not on higher education campus.Further exacerbating the issue is thatcontract courses are frequently viewed by some units as their source of extraincome.When contract courses used forprofessional development or re-certification are counted as part of a graduatedegree program, credibility can be an issue.The question arises whether the courses are the equivalent of coursestaken on campus that are taught by graduate-level faculty and whether thesecourse have the same expectations for rigor and scholarship.
i. In some states, courses specifically designated for P-12professional development carry a special number for transcripts.An explanation is placed on the transcriptdescribing what the specific numbers mean for courses which carry thisdesignation.Included in thedescription it is stated that these courses may not be used for graduateprograms at that institution.Thisalerts other institutions when a transcript is presented by a student seekingadmission to a graduate degree program.The Commission on Higher Education has established a policy thatrequires public institutions to adopt a course identifier to distinguishprofessional development courses.Thispolicy should be expanded to all institutions with teacher education programs.
ii. The use of Continuing Education Units (CEU) has been employedby some states as a way to deal with this issue.Continuing education units are awardedto participants based on established criteria.Most center around how much time the studentis involved in instruction.CEU’s maynot be used for graduate programs, but they can be used for salary purposes andrenewal of certificate in some cases.The use of CEU’s should be part of the work agenda for the Commission’sGraduate Teacher Education Task Force which could look into how CEUs may beused by P-12 teachers.
iii. Graduate Deans in the eleven public institutions have probablyalready identified this issue.Ifspecific guidelines have not been developed regarding professionaldevelopment/contract courses, then it would be prudent to do so.If the guidelines have been developed, thenone would have to question why there is such inconsistent use of them in thesecourses.
iv. Of course there is always the option to declare that anycourse developed as a
professional development/contractcourse for a specific topic/issue by a school is not eligible for graduatecredit and may not be used in graduate degree programs.Such courses could receive continuingeducation creditsor credit that hasbeen identified on transcripts as not eligible for use in degree programs.
5. Graduatelevel courses were not consistently difficult across the institutions.While MAT, M.Ed., and MA degree programsmight be offered at the same institution, there was an unevenness with the waycurriculum and programs were designed and implemented with little attentiongiven to ensure the continuity of learning, i.e., to build upon and extendprior knowledge and experiences.Therewas a general lack of enhancing competencies and depth of research course workand application at the M.Ed. degree level.At some institutions, M.A.T. candidates were enrolled in courses withM.Ed. and M.A. degree candidates.
i. All institutions involved in graduate level programs should ensurethat all students receive instruction in research and expect students toconduct research based on knowledge obtained in the course requirement.
ii. Graduate policies and practices need to be clarified in regardto the
relationship of MAT, M.Ed., andM.A. degree programs and required course work.M.A.T. courses need to be differentiated from undergraduate courses andalso from courses in the M.Ed. and M.A. degree programs.
6. Thereis a need for professional development for faculty in the use ofinstructional technology.Computers are available on campuses, andfaculty in most cases have been provided a computer for their offices.However, there is currently a void in how touse technology as a learning tool and incorporate technology into the faculty’sclassroom instruction.In-service hasbeen provided to help faculty members learn how to use the computer personallyfor word processing, spread sheets, etc. but training needs to go beyond thepersonal use of the computer.Furthermore, candidates in the programs need to learn not just how touse the computer, but also how to effectively incorporate a variety oftechnology into classroom instruction.
i. Additional resources need to be provided to each teacher educationunit to conduct professional development activities for its faculty on how toincorporate technology into the teaching-learning process.If the faculty know how to use thetechnology to enhance instruction, they will model its use for candidates inthe teacher preparation programs and help candidates learn to use technology aswell.
7. ProfessionalDevelopment Schools have been identified as holding promise for integratingcampus course work with the world of the practitioner.Several teacher education programs areeither starting to work with local P-12 schools or thinking about developing aProfessional Development School agreement with P-12 schools.The movement is one that should be examinedfor all institutions that prepare educators.
i. The Commission should bring together a group to explore thepotential of expanding the number of Professional Development Schools and todevelop some clear definitions and policies taking into consideration nationalstandards and guidelines.
ii. Encourage the development of the Professional DevelopmentSchool
concept by providing financialresources to support the cultivation of Professional Development Schools at theinstitutions.Such support shouldassist the PDS effort of the S.C. Department of Education’s Teacher QualityGrant which is attempting to expand the PDS network in the State.
8. Thereis a general lack of funding and support for faculty development and
professional developmentopportunities across the institutions.In some cases, there was a small amount identified in the unit budgetfor faculty development.Business andindustry devote a great deal of their financial resources to promote thedevelopment of their employees.Education also needs resources and support to assist the faculty to keepcurrent and abreast of new research and instructional strategies.A good example is the use of technologyalready identified in number six above.
i. Efforts need to be made to request additional funding for facultydevelopment and professional development opportunities for each of the eleveninstitutions’ teacher education units.
ii. Each teacher education unit should submit a request of itsneeds
to its administration with aplan detailing the purposes, goals, outcomes of the faculty development plan,and a budget for funding.
9. Althoughnot a concern, we would be remiss if we didn’t comment on the need to continuesupport for performance assessment driven by ADEPT, accreditation, andperformance assessment.
i. Continuedsupport should be provided including financial assistance for training,evaluation, and upgrading for performance assessment driven by ADEPT,accreditation, and performance.
UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS AND STRENGTHS
All eleven institutions exhibited the following:
1. Caring faculties who are:
· available to all students
· extremely busy
· committed to the point that at times they areoverextended
· teaching heavy loads and going beyond what is expected
· continually demonstrating a high commitment to theteaching-learning process
· student-centered and held in high esteem by students
2. Institutions demonstrated commitment to enhancecollaboration with P-12 school personnel and with higher education disciplineareas as measured by good collegial relations.In most institutions, there was a high level of cooperation withlocal P-12 schools and those in the area they serve.Examples include providing consultative services, conductingworkshops, special activities for students, jointly researching a particularproblem, etc.There is the capacityamong education faculty to provide additional collaboration as requested bydistricts and school personnel.
3. There were good relations throughout the individualinstitutions as well as external to the institutions that promote appropriatediscipline pedagogy and curricular growth.This was particularly in evidence between education faculty and facultyin other disciplines represented in arts and science colleges.Smaller institutions have the advantage offaculty working together in a variety of ways without a formal process toinsure communication.At the smallerinstitutions, the working relationships between the subject matter faculty suchas English, Social Science, Mathematics, Science, etc. in developing theconceptual framework and also the curriculum for programs was exceptional.This, of course, is highly desirable, andone would hope that it will continue and even develop further.The larger the institution, the more difficultit is to maintain a high level of collaboration and communication.
4. All institutions exhibited a commitment to accountabilityand quality education.From the topcampus administrator through each unit and individual faculty member, providinga quality education and educational experience was a high priority.Administrators and faculty were highlyconcerned about being accountable for academic programs and the collegeexperience.Students, graduates, andthose who employed graduates were all complimentary toward the teachereducation unit and felt the students were obtaining a quality education.
5. Thereis a growing interest in new preparation models to prepare professionaleducators.The exploration of startingProfessional Development Schools at some institutions is noteworthy.
6. Anumber of institutions have expressed an interest in exploring the infusionofstandards of the National Board forProfessional Teacher Standards into their graduate level programs.
Nearly every one of the eleven public institutions offersa program in elementary education as well as selected programs in secondaryeducation.Analysis of the programsfound no needless duplication.Giventhe numbers of teachers hired annually along with the number who leave teachingin the State, there is a need to offer both elementary and secondary teachereducation programs throughout the State.In terms of graduate level programs, several institutions have voluntarilyeliminated programs (e.g., Winthrop University eliminated its Ed.S. inCurriculum and Instruction with emphasis in elementary education, secondaryeducation and special education due to low enrollment).In other cases, the Commission on HigherEducation consultants have made curricular and other programmaticrecommendations concerning advanced programs, but none have been recommendedfor elimination.In still other cases,some institutions have discontinued initial certification programs that havenot met national content standards. Itis believed that all of the existing programs are meeting the needs of theState and serve a role in the continued preparation of educational personnelfor South Carolina.
United States Secretary of Education Richard Rileyreported to the nation in 1999 that over 2.2 million new teachers would beneeded in the next ten years to meet the demands created by P-12 schools.In sounding this alarm, Secretary Riley alsoemphasized the need for accountability and standards in teacher preparationprograms to ensure that quality educators were available to teach American’schildren.There are already reportedshortages of qualified teachers in a number of areas.Attempts to implement “quick fixes” to secure bodies to place inthe classroom are emerging across the country.The United States has gone through previous shortages where emergencyteaching certificates were granted to almost anyone who had a desire to teachwith little formal preparation.Shortcuts to teacher preparation have been presented and there are those who believeanybody can teach, and therefore no formal professional educational preparationis necessary.Such attempts to by-passprofessional preparation and certification for teachers of our children seemincredulous when hairdressers, beauticians, and even garbage disposal workersrequire a license.H.L. Menken hasbeen quoted as saying, “for every complex problem there is a simple solution--- and it is almost always wrong!”TheState of South Carolina is to be commended for its national leadership inseeking to ensure success in meeting the critical needs for large numbers ofquality teachers to educate the youth of South Carolina.
As has been stated previously, the eleven public institutionsin South Carolina who have teacher preparation programs have undergoneextensive evaluation and review.Afterthe visits and reports of the eleven institutions were conducted, theCommission of Higher Education consultants met as a group to review the reportsof each institution and write this final report.Based on that review, the following summary was developed inregard to the status of teacher preparation programs in South Carolina.
The overall quality and development of undergraduate andgraduate programs in the State of South Carolina is adequate and the needs ofSouth Carolina are being met by the institutions.As stated previously, there is a need for greater diversity infaculty and students.With changingdemographics in terms of race and ethnicity, there is also a need for teacherswho can speak another language to deal with students who have English as asecond language.This is not just anissue in South Carolina but throughout the United States.Demographers point out how the country ischanging in terms of race and ethnicity and South Carolina will be faced withthe same issue of educating foreign students who speak no English just as otherstates are already facing.
Obviously, there are many variables that enter into theprograms at each of the eleven institutions.One of the purposes of any evaluation process is to have an outsidegroup look at programs with an objective perspective.The NCATE process has been good for each teacher educationunit.While preparing their self-studyand providing evidence on how they meet the twenty NCATE standards, teachereducation units realized there were some gaps that needed to be taken careof.The explanation of the conceptualframework and knowledge base in particular required each institution to examinewhat they were doing, how it related to relevant research and practice, andmake necessary modifications.Without a doubt,participating in the joint accreditation process with NCATE, CHE,and the SDE has been beneficial to the State of South Carolina in that teachereducation programs in the eleven public institutions were forced to demonstratehow they were being accountable and meeting the standards.It should be of benefit for citizens ofSouth Carolina to know that teacher education programs have undergone astringent accreditation process at both the national and State level.
All of the institutions are committed to providing qualityteacher preparation programs to serve the schools and youth of the State.By going through the requiredself-examination process, institutions made some major changes.In several institutions, it was determinedthat some programs could be dropped or reorganized within other programs.In all cases, the consultants agreed withthis analysis.
It is the hope of the consultants that this first round ofevaluation will provide an excellent foundation on which to continually buildand strengthen programs.As such, thereports and visits should be viewed as the initial step in an on-going evaluationprocess with follow-up to see how each institution builds upon the reports.
PROGRAM SUMMARY OFEACH OF THE ELEVEN
A summary report on each of the eleven public institutionsthat has a teacher preparation unit is listed below. The report includes all of the education programs offered, thedegree designation for each program, the options/concentrations for eachprogram, and recommendations.We presentthis report by the CHE consultants for each individual institution.Following the full CHE report, there isincluded a summary of the recommendations of the National Council for theAccreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) for the basic (undergraduate) andadvanced (graduate) programs,the recommendation of the consultants who reviewed those programs notincluded in the folio review process of NCATE, and also a report on the SouthCarolina Commission on Higher Education program productivity standards (Appendix2).
Educational LeadershipM.Ed. Secondary.Sch. Admin. Approval
Educational LeadershipEd.S. Superintendent Approval
Student Counseling & Pers.M.Ed. ElementarySch. CounselorApproval
Secondary EducationBS Science/BiologyApproval
Math. Teacher Ed.M.A.Ed. Approval
Reading EducationM.Ed. Approval
Social Science Tch. Ed.M.A.Ed. Approval
Biology Teacher. Ed.M.A.Ed. Approval
*Programis in rejoinder with national specialty organization.
The Citadel was granted initial NCATE accreditation in1990 for all teacher education programs.Five specific weaknesses were cited at that time.A Continuing Accreditation visit wasconducted by NCATE, November 8-12, 1997.Ten weaknesses were identified at that time and as a result theAccreditation Report of the NCATE Unit Accreditation Board (March, 1998) statedthat continuing accreditation with probation be granted at the initialpreparation and advanced levels.NCATE requires that an accreditation visit take place within two yearsto continue accreditation beyond this two-year period.An initial accreditation visit wasconducted by an NCATE Board of Examiners team February 19-23, 1999.The UAB reported that all standards were metand the following weaknesses were identified: (1) the unit does notensure that candidates in the MAT program have completed general studiescourses and experiences in the liberal arts and sciences; (2) not allcontent area programs have utilized effectively the standards of specialtyorganizations in curriculum development; (3) The Master of Arts inEducation for the areas of mathematics and biology includes insufficientpedagogy; (4) four of eight programs have not utilized effectively thestandards of specialty organizations in curriculum development; (5) atthe initial level only, candidates and members of the professional communityoutside the unit are not regular participants in the unit’s policymaking and/oradvisory bodies.
At its October 2000 meeting, the NCATE Unit AccreditationBoard, after reviewing the material and reports, rendered a decision toaccredit the teacher education unit at The Citadel at the initial teacherpreparation and advanced levels.
The consultant for the Commission on Higher Education servedas a member of the BOE team, reviewed programs that were not part of the NCATEcurriculum folio process, and also applied the Commission’s ProgramProductivity Standards to all programs at The Citadel.Programs reviewed by the consultant thatwere not part of the NCATE Folio process were:(1) M.A.Ed.Mathematics Teacher Education;(2)M.A.Ed. Social Science Education; and (3)M.A.Ed. Biology Teacher Education.TheM.A.Ed. Mathematics and M.A.Ed.Biologyprograms meet the Commission Program Productivity Standards criteria in one ofthe areas (number of degrees awarded).A weakness for the M.A.Ed.Biology program was identified in that there is no contemporary methodsof teaching science (pedagogy) course which includes designing curriculum andcurriculum activities for high school and middle school students.A weakness in the M.A.Ed. Mathematicsprogram was identified in that all students were not required to take theMathematics methods and Mathematics Technology in the Classroom courses.The M.A.Ed. Social Sciences Degree does notmeet the Commission on Higher Education’s Program Productivity Standards in anyof the three areas (4.1 majors, 2.0 degrees awarded, no service hoursreported).The unit is recommended todetermine why enrollments are low in a program which appears to meet the needsof secondary teachers in the service areas.They should explore ways to recruit and retain a larger number ofstudents and investigate alternative delivery systems.
RECOMMENDATIONS/FINDINGS FOR THE CITADEL
1. SinceThe Citadel was granted accreditation at the initial and advanced levels, it isrecommended that all programs be fully approved except for those that have notachieved compliance by specialty organization or have not met the Commission’sProgram Productivity Standards.
2. Allprograms, with the exception of the M.A.Ed. degree in Social Science, meet theSouth Carolina Commission on Higher Education’s Program Productivity Standardscriteria.
3. TheM.A.Ed. degree in Social Science suffers from low enrollment and the programshould be placed on provisional/probationary statuswith a rigorous internal review undertakento investigate why there are such lowenrollment in the program.A planshould be developed from this review to enhance enrollment in the program.If the number of enrollments cannot beimproved within two years, it will be difficult to continue the program eithereffectively or efficiently and it should be terminated.
4. TheM.A.Ed. Mathematics Teacher Education degree program should require allstudents in teacher education to take the Mathematics Methods and Mathematics Technology in theClassroom courses.The Citadel shouldrequire these courses as soon as possible.
5. Acontemporary methods for teaching science (pedagogy) course, includingdesigning curriculum materials for students should be included in the M.A.Ed.Biology degree program and required of all teacher education students.The Citadel should add this course into thecurriculum as soon as possible.
Curriculum & Inst.Ph.D.Elementary EducationApproval
Adm. & Superv.M.Ed.Approval
Adm. & Superv.Ed.S.Approval
Counsel. & GuidanceM.A.Approval
Early Childhood Ed.B.A.Approval
Industrial EducationB.S.Vocational Teacher Ed.Approval
Science TeachingB.S.Biology Approval
Voc. & Tech. Educ.Ed.D.Approval
*Programis in rejoinder with national specialty organization.
An Initial Accreditation Visit conducted by an NCATEBoard of Examiners took place November 11-15, 2000.Five weaknesses were identified by the Board of Examiners andas a result of the Accreditation Report the NCATE Unit Accreditation Board(MARCH 25-30, 2001) granted Clemson University continuing accreditation at the initial teacher preparation and advanced levels.
Weaknesses identified by the UAB report were asfollows:(1) the conceptual framework has not been fully integrated in thework of supervising teachers, administrators, principals, and members of thecommunity; (2) agricultural education 400 and 600 level courses do not appearto differentiate between initial and advanced levels of preparation; (3) at the advanced level, no all instruction in the unit -in particular,off-campus coursework- is continuously evaluated; (4) the student body diversity is limited; (5) the composition of thefaculty is not diverse.
The consultant for the Commission of Higher Educationserved as a member of the Board of Examiners Team fully participating in thedecision making process.The consultantalso reviewed programs that were not part of the NCATE curriculum folio processand applied the Commission’s Program Productivity Standards criteria to allprograms at Clemson University.Programs reviewed by the consultant and their analysis are as follows:
Master ofAgricultural Education:Becauseit meets a specialized need in the state, this program should be continued. Faculty carry heavy teaching, advising, and administrative loads. A study offaculty workloads should beundertakento determine what additional resources are needed to support the programadequately. The program should assist new faculty to ensure that they areproductive in terms of their research and publications.
Master ofEducation in Elementary Education:This program should be continued with full approval.However, the apparent trendtoward fewer enrollments each year should not be ignored.The unit should develop a plan to maintain aviable level of enrollments and which addresses therecruitment, retention, and graduation of candidates.
Master ofEducation in Secondary Education:This program should be continued with full approval. It is suggested that effortsbe made to recruit, retain, and graduate a larger number of minority candidates and to improve diversity on the faculty
Master ofIndustrial Education:It isrecommended that this program be continued with full approval.It is suggested that effortsbe made to recruit, retain, and graduate a larger number of minority candidates and to improve diversity on the faculty.
Doctor ofEducation in Vocational-Technical Education:This program should be continued with fullapproval as it is meeting a rather unique need in the State.It is suggested that effortsbe made to recruit, retain, and graduate a larger number of minority candidates.
Doctor ofPhilosophy in Curriculum and Instruction:This program should be continued with full approval as it is appropriate and necessary for aresearch university like Clemson.It is suggested that effortsbe made to recruit, retain, and graduate a larger number of minority candidates and to improve diversity on the faculty. It is also recommended that allprogram faculty increase their involvement in scholarly activities.
Doctor ofPhilosophy in Educational Leadership:This program should be continued with full approval.It is staffed by astrong faculty and has a pool of high quality applicants each year. It is recommended that a study be undertaken toexplore if the number of candidates in the programs is consistent with the size ofthe faculty, faculty workload, scholarly activity, and service expectations. Astrategic plan should be developed to guide the department in futuredevelopment. The department should increase its efforts in establishingconsistent contact with P-12 school administrators, particularly those in theimmediate area. The faculty should pursue a more active role in nationalprofessional organizations in educational administration and that their researchand scholarly activities become more focused. It is suggested that effortsbe made to recruit, retain, and graduate a larger number of minority studentsand to improve diversity on the faculty
RECOMMENDATIONS/FINDINGS FOR CLEMSON UNIVERSITY
1. SinceClemson University was granted accreditation at the initial and advanceadlevels, it is recommended that all programs be fully approved except for thosethat have not achieved compliance by specialty organizations or the SC.Department of Education.
2. Allprograms meet the South Carolina Commission on Higher EducationProgram Productivity Standards criteria.
3. Theseven advanced level programs not reviewed as part of the NCATE folio reviewprocess and therefore reviewed by the Commission on Higher Education consultantare recommended for full approval.
4. Stepsshould be taken to maintain a viable level of enrollment in the M.Ed. inElementary Education degree program and special attention should be given tothe recruitment, admission, retention, and graduation of minority candidates.
5. TheMaster of Education in Secondary Education program also needs to give attentionto the recruitment, admission, retention, and graduation of minority candidatesand to improve the diversity of faculty.
6. TheMaster of Industrial Education program needs to make special efforts torecruit, admit, retain, and graduate minority candidates and to improve thediversity of faculty.
7. TheDoctor of Education in Vocational-TechnicalEducation degree program should develop efforts to recruit, retain, and graduatea larger number of minority candidates.
8. TheDoctor of Philosophy in Educational Leadership degree program should undertake astudy to explore if the number of candidates in the program is consistent withthe size of the faculty, faculty workload, scholarly activity, and serviceexpectations. A strategic plan should be developed to guide the departmentin future development.
Elementary Education M.Ed.Approval
Early Childhood Ed.B.A.Ed.ApprovalB.S.Ed.Approval
Early Childhood Ed.M.Ed.Approval
Physical EducationB.S.P.E.Physical EducationProbation *
*Programs onprobation until their curriculum folios are approved by their specialtyorganization.
An Initial Accreditation visit was conducted by the NCATEBoard of Examiners on September 26-30, 1998 at Coastal CarolinaUniversity.The UAB’s report noted thatStandard I.H (Quality of Field Experiences) was not met at the advanced leveland that Standard III.B (Composition of Faculty) was not met at both theinitial and advanced levels.Additionally, weaknesses were identified by the UAB.Those weaknesses were:(1) at the initial level, the guidelinesand standards of specialty organizations have not been used in developingprograms in all content areas; (2) at the initial and advanced levels,students do not reflect the minimal cultural diversity; (3) the advancedprograms do not require planned field experiences with systematic feedback tocandidates; (4); the unit does not have an explicit plan to recruit,admit, and retain a diverse student body in advanced programs; (5) theunit does not have an explicit plan with adequate resources to recruit, hire,or retain a diverse faculty; (6) the faculty reflects minimal diversity.
At its March, 1999, meeting the NCATE Unit AccreditationBoard reviewed the materials and reports for Coastal Carolina University andrendered the decision to accredit the teacher education unit at CoastalCarolina University at the initial teacher preparation and advanced levels.
The consultant for the Commission on Higher Educationserved as a member of the Board of Examiners Team fully participating in thedecision making process.The consultantalso reviewed two programs that were not part of the NCATE folio reviewprocess.The consultant also appliedthe Commission’s Program Productivity Standards for all programs at CoastalCarolina University.The consultant’sreport on programs reviewed that were not part of the NCATE folio process is asfollows:
Master ofEducation in Elementary Education:The program should be continued with full approval as it is meeting theneeds of the service area.There appearsto be a trend toward fewer enrollments each year.It is recommended that a comprehensive internal study beundertaken looking at the demographics of the Waccamaw region in regard to thepotential student population.A planneeds to be developed immediately to increase enrollments with specialattention given to the recruitment, admission, retention, and graduation ofminority students.
Master ofEducation in Secondary Education:The program should be continued with full approval as it is meeting theneeds of the region it serves.It isrecommended that an internalstudy beundertaken to reveal why the enrollments, number of graduates, and majors is solow (13 majors, 2 degrees awarded in five disciplines in five years),especially in the areas of mathematics, natural science, and socialstudies.Plans should be developed torecruit, admit, retain, and graduate more students, especially minoritystudents, in the specialty areas.Theunit should explore the use of distance learning to increase enrollments.
Applying the South Carolina Commission on Higher EducationProgram Productivity Standards criteria to all programs at Coastal CarolinaUniversity revealed that all teacher education programs met the requirementsset forth by the Commission.
RECOMMENDATIONS/FINDINGS FOR COASTAL CAROLINA UNIVERSITY
1. SinceCoastal Carolina was granted accreditation at the initial and advanced levels,it is recommended that all programs be fully approved except for those thathave not achieved compliance by specialty organizations (Early Childhood andPhysical Education).
2. EarlyChildhood and Physical Education programs will be on probation until theircurriculum folios are approved by the specialty organization.
3. StandardI.H (Quality of Field Experiences) at the advanced level and Standard III.B(Composition of Faculty) at both the initial and advanced levels must be dealtwith by Coastal Carolina faculty and progress to correct them must be submittedin their annual reports to NCATE.Thisis also true for the eight weaknesses identified by the UAB report.It is recommended that Coastal CarolinaUniversity move as quickly as is feasible to remedy the not met standards andeight weaknesses that were identified.
4. Allprograms meet the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education ProgramProductivity Standards.
5. Thetwo programs reviewed by the Commission consultant (since they were not part ofthe NCATE curriculum folio review), Master of Education Degree in ElementaryEducation and the Master of Education in Secondary Education Degree arerecommended for full approval.
6. Itis recommended that a comprehensive study be undertaken by Coastal CarolinaUniversity looking at the demographics and potential student population in theWaccamaw area.A plan needs to be developed to recruit, admit, retain, andgraduate more students in both the Master of Education for Elementary Educationand the Master of Education for Secondary Education Degrees.Special attention should be given torecruit, admit, retain, and graduate minority students.
7. Itis recommended that the teacher education unit develop and implement acomprehensive plan to recruit, hire, and retain a diverse faculty.
8. Itis recommended that the teacher education unit develop and implement acomprehensive plan to recruit, admit, retain, and graduate a diverse studentbody, especially in advanced programs.
COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON
Special EducationB.S.Emotionally HandicappedApproval
Special EducationM.Ed.Emotionally HandicappedApproval
Pol. Science/Govt.B.A.Teacher EdApproval
An Initial Accreditation visit was conducted by an NCATEBoard of Examiners team on October 3-7, 1998.At the October, 1999UAB meeting decided to accredit the Schoolof Education at the initial teacher preparation level and deny accreditation toprograms at the advanced level. The UAB’s report noted two standards not met at both the advancedlevel only (II.B Composition of Candidates and III.A Qualifications ofFaculty).In addition, the followingweaknesses were identified in the UAB report and apply to the advanced levelunless indicated otherwise .Weaknesses identified were as follows:(1) the conceptual framework is not shared broadly with theprofessional education community and formal plans for the inclusion of thebroader professional community in the evaluation of the conceptual frameworkhave not yet been developed; (2) atthe advanced level, the conceptual framework is unevenly integrated into thecampus-based professional education curriculum and not integrated into theoff-campus professional development courses; (3) the unit does notensure that students have course work in the general education requirementswhich incorporates multicultural perspectives; (4) the professional development courses do not reflect the qualityof instruction and rigor consistent with graduate level work; (5) there is no evidence of integrationof the unit’s conceptual framework into the professional development courses; (6) candidates for secondarycertification at the initial level do not have sufficient field experience; (7) the governance structure of the unitdoes not include provisions for the systematic and continuous involvement byrepresentatives of the broader professional community regarding their programs;(8) the governance structure is not formalized in institutional policy; (9) the unit has no explicit plan torecruit, admit, and retain a diverse student body; (10) enrollments do notrepresent sufficient cultural diversity; and (11) professional development course faculty are not held to thesame criteria applied to other faculty who teach at the graduate level; (12)curriculum materials are limited and their location restricts access by facultyand office space for faculty is insufficient.
An NCATE Board of Examiners team visited the College ofCharleston December 2-6, 2000 to examine only the advanced level programs. The UAB met March, 2001, and after reviewing reports and materials rendered thedecision to accredit the advanced level programs. The UAB reportidentified two weaknesses at the advanced level: 1) the conceptual framework isnot infused throughout the mathematics and science courses; 2) field experiencesin the M.Ed. in Science and Mathematics program are not well planned, sequenced,or consistent with the conceptual framework.
The consultant for the Commission on Higher Educationserved as a member of the Board of Examiners Team and participated fully in thedecision making process.The consultantalso reviewed the one program that was not part of the NCATE folio reviewprocess and applied the Commission’s Program Productivity Standards criteria toall programs at the College of Charleston.The program reviewed by the consultant was the Master of Educationdegree in Elementary Education.Thenumber of faculty supporting the program is sufficient. The consultant’s reportindicates that the Master of Education program in Elementary Education met theProgram Productivity Standards of the Commission and recommended that it becontinued as it had sufficient enrollment and was meeting a need for theservice area.Applying the ProgramProductivity Standards to all programs at the College of Charleston revealedthat all programs met the criteria in at least one of the areas.However, several initial level programs werelow on two of the criteria.Theseprograms are listed below and these low enrollments are noted as areas ofconcern:
German B.A./AB.:This program awarded a five-year average of 0.4 degrees, an average of1.8 majors, and 59.3 service hours.
French B.A/AB.:This program has a five-year average of 0.6 degrees, 7.5 majors, and 257.8service hours.
Spanish B.A./A.B.:A five-year average of 2.0 degrees awarded,9.2 majors, and476.8service hours were reported.
Mathematics B.S./A.B.:While this program had five-year average of 3.2 degrees and 12.6majors, the number of majors is only 0.1 above the number required. Servicehours reported were 674.
Chemistry B.A./B.S./A.B.:The five-year average of degrees awarded was 0.6, with only 2.3major, and 259.1 service hours.
Physics B.A./BS/A.B.:The five-year average of degrees awarded was 0.0, with only 0.4major, and 233.6 service hours.
Political Science and Government B.A/A.B.:Over the five years the average number ofdegrees awarded was 0.4, with 6.0 majors, and 225.3 service hours.
Sociology B.S./A.B.:This program awarded an average of 0.4 degrees over the five-yearperiod 10.9 major, and 254.1 service hours.
RECOMMENDATIONS/FINDINGS FOR COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON
1. TheCollege of Charleston was granted accreditation at the initial(undergraduate) level and advanced(graduate) level by NCATE in October, 1999 and March 2001, respectively.Allprograms should be continued with full approval.
2. Thetwo standards not met and the twelve weaknesses reported in the UAB report mustbe dealt with as required by NCATE and reported in the unit’s annualreports.It is recommended that theCollege of Charleston move as quickly as it is feasible to remedy the twostandards that were not met and the weaknesses identified by the UAB.
3. The M.Ed. degree in Special Education, the M.Ed. program in Elementary Education,and the M.Ed. program in Early Childhood Education were approved through thefolio review process and should have full approval
4. Theone program not part of the NCATE folio review process and therefore reviewedby the Commission’s consultant, the M.Ed. in Elementary Education, met theCommission’s Program Productivity Standards and is recommendedfor full approval.
5. Allprograms met the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education ProgramProductivity Standards on at least one of the criteria as required.However, nine programs did not meet two ofthe criteria and should be closely monitored in the future for number ofdegrees awarded and the number of majors in the program.Plans should be devised to recruit andmaintain students in these programs.
6. Theunit should evaluate and assess the M.Ed. degree in Science and MathematicsTeaching to ensure that the program and curriculum reflect the conceptualframework. Field experience need to be developed for this program that arearticulated and sequenced.
7. The conceptual framework should be reflected in professionaldevelopment courses.
8. For admission purposes, the M.Ed. in Science and MathematicsTeaching should set a minimum score on the GRE, MAT, or NTE exams.
FRANCIS MARION UNIVERSITY
Early Childhood Ed.B.S.Approval
Early Childhood Ed.M.Ed.Approval
Applied PsychologyM.S.School PsychologyApproval
Political Science and Govt.B.A.TeacherEducationApproval
An Initial Accreditation visit was conducted by an NCATEBoard of Examiners team on March 20-24, 1999.The UAB reported that Standards III.B (Composition of Faculty) andStandard IV.A (Governance and Accountability of Unit) were not met at both theinitial and advanced levels.Additionally, three weaknesses were identified by the UAB report.Weaknesses identified were as follows:(1) theunit’s Minority Recruitment Plan has not been fully implemented; (2) the unit does not have a culturallydiverse faculty; (3) policies arenot in place to ensure that the unit has sufficient authority to administerteacher education programs.
At itsOctober1999 meeting, the NCATE Unit Accreditation Board, after reviewing the materialand reports, rendered a decision to accredit the Teacher Education Unit at FrancisMarion University at the initial teacher preparation and advanced levels.
The consultant for the Commission of Higher Educationserved as a member of the Board of Examiners team and participated fully in thedecision making process. The consultant also reviewed the three programs thatwere not part of the NCATE curriculum folio process and also applied theCommission’s Program Productivity Standards criteria to all programs in teachereducation at Francis Marion University.Programs reviewed were as follows:
Master ofEducation degree in Elementary Education:The program should be continued with full approval as it isfulfilling a need for the University service area.The unit is encouraged to continue to find ways to support part-timestudents.The use of distance educationto deliver instruction is a move in the right direction. It is recommended thatongoing faculty development be provided and that faculty be given time forpreparation and adaptation of courses for delivery using distance educationtechnology.The program meets theSouth Carolina Commission on Higher Education’s Program Productivity Standardscriteria.
Master ofEducation in Secondary Education (English, Mathematics, Social Studiesand Sciences ( Biology, Chemistry, General Science):The program is recommended for continuation with fullapproval.The movement to the deliveryof courses with distance education technology is encouraged and will benefitthe part-time student.As distanceeducation offerings are expanded, the institution is encouraged to assess thesuccess of the offerings with particular emphasis on the impact made forstudents in rural locations.Theprogram meets the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education’s ProgramProductivity Standards criteria.
Master ofEducation in Remediation:It isrecommended that the program be continued with full approval as it is meetingthe needs of licensed teachers who wish to obtain advanced knowledge and skillsto enhance their work for at-risk-children in rural settings.The program meets the South CarolinaCommission on Higher Education’s Program Productivity Standards criteria.
The Commission consultant applied the South CarolinaCommission on Higher Education’s Program Productivity Standards criteria toprograms that were part of the NCATE curriculum folio process.All programs met the criteria in at leastone of the three areas as required.However, several initial level program and one at the advanced levelwere low on two of the criteria.Theselow enrollments are noted as areas of concern.These programs are as follows:
Art Education B.S.:The program awarded a five-year average of 3.6 degrees and had anaverage of 10.1 majors.No servicehours were reported by the institution.
Early Childhood Education M.Ed.:An average of 5.0 service hours, 5.1 majors,and 6.2 degrees awarded was reported for the five-year period.
French B.A.:A five-year average of 31.2 service hours were reported but only 0.2degrees were awarded and there was no accounting for the number of majors.*
Spanish B.A.:Data found a five-year average of 1.2degrees awarded and 38.7 service hours.Data were not available for the number of majors.*
Biology B.A./B.S.:Data show a five-year average of 3.6 degrees awarded with servicehours.There was no accounting for thenumber of majors.*
Chemistry B.S.:The program has a five-year average of 134.4 service hours, but norecord of majors or degrees were reported in that same time.*
History B.A.:The data show a five-year average 3.8 degrees awarded and serviceenrollments, but no record of majors was reported.*
Political Science and Government B.A.:The program has a five-year average of 2.2degrees awarded and 195.1 service hours; there was no record of majors reportedduring this same time.*
Sociology B.A./B.S.:A five-year average of 1.6 degrees awarded and 136.6 serviceenrollments was reported; but there was no record of majors reported.*
* The institution was unable to separate education majorsfrom discipline majors.
RECOMMENDATIONS/FINDINGS FOR FRANCIS MARION UNIVERSITY
1. FrancisMarion University was granted accreditation by NCATE at both the initialteacher preparation and advanced levels.All programs d should be continued with full approval.
2. Thestandards and weaknesses identified in the UAB report must be dealt with byFrancis Marion and reported in their annual report to NCATE.It is recommended that Francis Marion moveas quickly as possible to remedy the three standards and eight weaknesses thatwere identified.
3. Thethree programs reviewed by the Commission’s consultant that were not part ofthe NCATE curriculum folio review process are recommended for full approval andcontinuation.They are the Master ofEducation in Elementary Education degree; the Master of Education in SecondaryEducation degree; and the Master of Education in Remediation degree.
4. Itis recommended that further use of distance education technology in the Masterof Education Degrees in Elementary Education, Secondary Education andRemediation be supported to offer course work to part-time students,particularly those in rural areas.Theinstitution is encouraged to assess the success of distance education and theimpact on students.
5. Itis recommended that Francis Marion University provide time to faculty forpreparation and adaptation of courses for delivery using distance educationtechnology.
6. Allprograms meet the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education ProgramProductivity Standards on at least one of the criteria.However, nine programs were low on two ofthe criteria and should be monitored closely in the future for number ofdegrees awarded and the number of majors.
Political ScienceB.S.Teacher EducationApproval
Speech & TheaterB.A.Teacher EducationApproval
Art, Visual ArtsB.A.Teacher EducationApproval
An Initial Accreditation visit was conducted by an NCATEBoard of Examiners team on March 27-31, 1999.The team and the UAB reported that all twenty standards were met at theappropriate levels.Four weaknesseswere identified by the UAB report as follows: (1) the conceptual model is not evident in the instruments used to evaluatecandidates; (2) not allfaculty engage in research to the degree expected of teacher-scholars; (3) the diversity of faculty islimited; (4) resources for professional development are inadequate.
At its October 1999 meeting, the NCATE Unit AccreditationBoard, after reviewing the material and reports, rendered a decision toaccredit the School of Education at Lander University at the initial teacherpreparation and advanced levels.
The consultant for the Commission on Higher Educationserved as a member of the Board of Examiners team and participated fully in thedecision-making process.The consultantwas also responsible for reviewing the one program (Master of Education inElementary Education degree) that was not part of the NCATE curriculum folioreview process.The consultant alsoapplied the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education’s ProgramProductivity Standards to all programs in teacher education at LanderUniversity.
The review of the Masters in Education in ElementaryEducation program found a program that was in transition undergoing a number ofchanges.It is a quality programmeeting the needs served by Lander.Ithas strong support from P-12 administrators in the area.In terms of program productivity, over afive-year period it awarded an average of 32.6 degrees and average 25.3majors.The program meets therequirements of the Program Productivity Standards.
Eight weaknesses were identified by the Commission’sconsultant for the M.Ed. in Elementary Education as follows:(1)the conceptual framework is not integrated consistently across the program andit is not infused in all course syllabi and evaluation of students: (2) there is limited course work inresearch and the emphasis is on reading and review of research and there is aneed for each student to learn how to design, conduct, and make application ofresearch to the classroom setting; (3)field/clinical experiences are not consistent with the conceptual framework andinfused throughout the curriculum; (4)the use of portfolios and journals is exemplary, except they are not integratedinto the conceptual model; (5)admission standards are minimal, not everyone is clear on what is required foradmission, and unit publications do not consistently convey the sameinformation; (6) not all facultyengage in research to the degree expected of teacher-scholars in graduateprograms; (7) currently the programis a set of courses and not an integrated program providing experiences andactivities to enrich and expand what takes place in the classroom; (8) there is insufficient diversity inthe composition of the faculty and student body.
The Commission’s consultant applied the South CarolinaCommission on Higher Education’s Program Productivity Standards to all teachereducation programs at Lander University All programs met the criteria in atleast one of the three area.However,several initial level and two advanced level programs had low enrollments andthese are noted as areas of concern.These programs are listed below:
Secondary Education M.A.T.:The average is 1.0 degrees awarded, anaverage of 6.9 majors over a five-year period.
Music Education B.M.Ed. :The average is 4.0 degrees awarded, an average of 16.3 majors, andan average of 67.0 service hours.
Spanish B.A.:Data on full-time and part-time enrollment figures could not be providedfor majors in the program or degrees awarded.The degrees only for education were reported showing an average of 0.0degrees awarded, an average of 0.0 majors, and an average of 45.2 servicehours.The program only meets theProgram Productivity Standards by the number of service hours provided.
Mathematics B.S.:Data on full-time and part-time enrollment could not be provided formajors in the program or degrees awarded.The data reported were only for education and revealed an average of 2.2degrees awarded, an average of 0.0 majors, and 185.7 service hours generated.The program only meets the ProgramProductivity Standards by the number of service hours provided.
History B.S.:Data were not available as above.An average of 3.8 degrees were awarded, an average of 0.0 majors, and69.2 service hours generated.Theprogram only meets the Program Productivity Standards by the number of servicehours provided.
Political Science B.A.:The only data that could be provided were for education where anaverage of 0.2 degrees were awarded, an average of 0.0 majors, and an averageof 24.9 service hours generated.Theprogram only meets the Program Productivity Standards by the number of servicehours provided.
Speech and Theater B.A.:The only data provided were for education where an average of0.2 degrees were awarded, an average of 0.0 majors, and 19.7 service hours weregenerated.The program only meets theProgram Productivity Standards by the number of service hours provided.
Visual Arts B.A.:The only data available were for education where an average of 4.4degrees were awarded, an average of 0.0 majors, and an average of 83.0 servicehours generated.The standards are metonly by the number of service hours provided.
RECOMMENDATIONS/FINDINGS FOR LANDER UNIVERSITY
1. LanderUniversity was granted accreditation by NCATE at both the initial teacherpreparation and advanced level in October, 1999.All programs are approved and should be continued with fullapproval.
2. Theeight weaknesses identified in the UAB report must be dealt with by Lander andprogress to correct them must be submitted in their annual reports toNCATE.It is recommended that LanderUniversity move as quickly as possible to remedy the eight weaknesses that wereidentified.
3. Theone program reviewed by the consultant since it was not part of the NCATEcurriculum folio process (Master of Education in Elementary Education) met theCommission on Higher Education’s Program Productivity Standards and it isrecommended for approval and continuation.
4. Itis recommended that the teacher education unit at Lander take note of the eightweaknesses identified for the Master of Education in Elementary Educationdegree and take steps that will address them as soon as possible.
5. Allprograms met at least one of the criteria presented in the South CarolinaCommission on Higher Education’s Program Productivity Standards.However, it should be noted that sevenprograms ( Spanish/B.A.; Mathematics/B.S.; History/B.S.; PoliticalScience/B.S.; Speech and Theater/B.A.; and Visual Arts/B.A.) suffer from a low numberof majors and degrees awarded.It isrecommended that these programs be monitored closely in the future for thenumber of majorsand degreesawarded.The unit should develop a planto increase and maintain enrollment in these disciplines.
SOUTH CAROLINASTATE UNIVERSITY
Special Education (K-12)B.S.Educ. Mentally Hand.Approval
Special EducationM.Ed.Educ. Mentally Retard.Approval
Elementary EducationM.Ed.Basic Elem. Ed.Approval
Early Childhood Ed.B.S.Approval
Early Childhood Ed.M.A.T.Probation**
Secondary Education M.A.T.EnglishApproval
SpeechPath & Audio.Probation*
Art Education K-12B.S.Approval
Business Education K-12B.S.Probation*
Health Education B.S.Approval
Family & Consum. ScienceB.S.Approval
Music EducationB.S.Music Choral K-12ApprovalMusicInstr. K-12Approval
English, ProfessionalB.A.Secondary Ed.Approval
Dramatic ArtsB.A.Secondary Ed.Approval
Speech Path. & Audio.B.A.Approval
Speech Path. & Audio.M.A.T.SpeechApproval
(1) Program has not been approved by the learned society
*The self-study for this program is in the rejoinder phaseand has not been approved by the S.C. Department of Education.
**does not meetthe Commission on Higher Education Program Productivity Standards.
A Continuing Accreditation visit was conducted by an NCATEBoard of Examiners team on February 20-24, 1999.Two new weaknesses were identified in the UAB report:(1)the unit does not provide faculty with adequate resources for the delivery ofclassroom instruction using current technological practices.Generally the classrooms are not wired tosupport advanced technology for instructional purposes and the hardware andsoftware is not available to all faculty for instructional purposes; and (2) diversity of the student body inthe unit is limited.
At its October 1999 meeting the NCATE Unit AccreditationBoard, after reviewing
materials and reports, rendered a decision to continue theaccreditation of the School of Education at South Carolina State University atthe initial teacher preparation and advanced levels.
The consultant for the Commission on Higher Educationserved as a member of the Board of Examiners and participated fully in thedecision making process.The consultantwas also responsible for reviewing four programs that were not part of theNCATE curriculum folio review process.A report on each follows:
EducationDoctorate in Educational Administration:The program is fulfilling a need for the State of South Carolinaand has sufficient students.The numberof faculty assigned to the program is not sufficient and should be reviewed aseither the workload needs to be reduced or additional staff added.Faculty productivity in terms of scholarlyproduction for faculty teaching in the program needs to be improved.The program has a five-year average of 12.8degrees awarded and an average of 19.3 majors.The program meets all three areas of the Program ProductivityStandards and is recommended for continuation with full approval.This program provides training for thoseinterested in educational administration and should have been reviewed by theappropriate learned society.During thenext NCATE review, the institution will be required to submit a program folioto the Education Leadership Constituents Council as it did for the Ed.S.program.
EducationSpecialist in Educational Administration: The program should becontinued with probation.A folio was submittedto the learned society and records indicate that the program is in therejoinder stage.Until approved by thelearned society, the program must be placed on probation.The program has a five-year average of10.0 degrees and an average of 4.7 majors.The program meets all three criteria of the Program ProductivityStandards of the Commission on Higher Education.
Master ofEducation Degree in Elementary Education:There is broad support for this program from faculty, currentstudents, program alumni, and practitioners in the service area. Having theFelton Laboratory School on-site is a bonus for the program as it provides apositive
model of teaching and learning.The Programmatic Climate Survey should be continued as itprovides a continuous measurement of the program’s performance.The program has a five-year
average of 10.4 degrees awarded, an average of 19.6majors, and has generated an average of 18.5 service hours.The program meets the Commission’s ProgramProductivity Standards and is recommended for continuation with fullapproval.
Master ofEducation Degree in Secondary Education (Biology & Science; Chemistry;English; Industrial Education; Mathematics; History/Social Studies):This program is meeting the needin its service area and enrollments are steady.It is recommended that the Programmatic Climate Survey becontinued as a measure of the program’s performance.The program has a five-year average of 3.6 degrees, an averageof21.0 majors.Service hours generated were notreported.The program meets theCommission Program Productivity Standards.The program is recommend for continuation with full approval
The Commission’s consultant also identified five area ofconcern for the School of Education.They are as follows:
1. Frequentreferences to the Ed.D.in EducationalAdministration program and its offerings at the University Center of Greenvillewere made by faculty, staff, and some students.According to the Commission Observer, CHE had not received a proposalfrom South Carolina State University at the time of the NCATE visit requestingpermission to offer the Ed.D at that location.The Self Study report for NCATE states that an application has beensubmitted and it also states that “the complete Ed.D. program is offered at theUniversity Center within a year round program.It is a cooperative program with other major public universities in theState.(Note: The program proposal tooffer the Ed.D. has since been received by CHE and approved.)
2. Whileconversations with administration and selected faculty reflect a commitment tothe expansion of technology, the actual pace at which it has been infusedinto the curriculum is mediocre incomparison to the state-wide effort.
3. Reviewof materials and discussion with faculty and administrators on qualificationsand expectations for faculty teaching in advanced graduate (Ed.S.) and terminaldegree (Ed.D.) programming found lack of agreement in the articulation of thecriteria for such.
4. Reviewof doctorate faculty curriculum vita found an unevenness in the reporting ofscholarship and research.
5. Whilethe teaching loads of faculty responsible for the delivery of all advanceddegree programs are limited to a prescribed number of credit hours, it isevident that campus teaching loads, off-campus teaching, student advisementincluding the direction of research projects and dissertations, committee work,and other service involvement have created overloads.
The Commission consultant applied the South Carolina Commissionon Higher Education’s Program Productivity Standards to all teacher educationprograms at South Carolina State University.One program, Early Childhood Education (MAT) did not meet any of thethree criteria (average number of degrees awarded, number of majors, and numberof service hours generated) specified in the standards.The program had a five-year average of 0.5degrees awarded, an average of only 3.4 majors, and an average of 1.0 servicehours.It is recommended for probation.
In addition, nine programs were low on two of the criteriaand merit monitoring and review.Theunit should develop a plan to increase and maintain enrollments in theseprograms.They are as follows:
Art Education K-12 B.S.:The program had a five-year average of 1.6 degrees awarded andan average of 6.4 majors.Service hourswere not reported.
Business Education B.S.:The program averaged 4.6 degrees, 12.8 majors, and no servicehours were reported.
Health Education K-12 B.S.:Over the five-year period there were anaverage of 0.6 degrees were awarded, 4.6 majors, and 55.8 service hours.
Family and Consumer Science Education B.S.:An average of 2.0 degrees, 5.5 majors, and19.5 service hours over the five-year period were reported.
French B.A./B.S.:The five-year average of degrees was 0.0 with only 0.6 majors. Servicehours were reported at 27.9.
Spanish B.S.:The five-year average was 0.6 degrees awarded with only 0.6 majors.Service hours were reported at 57.0
Chemistry B.S.:The five-year average was 0.2 degrees awarded with only 0.4 majors.Service hours were reported at 99.7.
Social Science B.A.:The data available revealed an average of 2.4 degrees awardedover a three-year period with an average of 4.4 majors.No service hours were reported.
Dramatic Arts B.A.:The five-year average was 0.0 degrees awarded with 0.8majors.Service hours were reported at841.5.
RECOMMENDATIONS/FINDINGS FOR SOUTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
1. SouthCarolina State University was granted continuing accreditation by NCATE at boththe initial teacher preparation and advanced levels in October, 1999.These programs should receive full approval.
2. Thetwo weaknesses identified in the UAB report must be dealt with by the School ofEducation and progress to correct them must be submitted in annual reports toNCATE.It is recommended that SouthCarolina State University move as quickly as possible to remedy the twoweaknesses.
3. Thefour programs reviewed by the Commission consultant that were not part of theNCATE curriculum folio review process met the Commission Program ProductivityStandards.The four are presented belowwith recommendations:
i. EducationDoctorate (Ed.D.) in Educational Administration:It is recommended the program be continued with full approval.However, it is recommended that an internal review of staffing of the programbe undertaken and that either the workload be reduced or additionalfaculty/staff be added.The NCATE folioreview process must be followed at the time of the next visit.
ii. EducationSpecialist (Ed.S.) in Educational Administration:It is recommended that the program be continued withprobation.The unit needs to followthrough with the rejoinder stage with the learned society.Also, it is recommended that an internalreview of staffing the program be undertaken and that either the workload bereduced or additional faculty/ staff be added.
iii. Masterof Education (M.Ed.) in Elementary Education:It is recommended that the program be continued with full approval.It is recommended that the faculty continueto administer the Programmatic Climate Survey and assess for programperformance.
iv. Masterof Education (M.Ed.) in Secondary Education:It is recommended that the program be continued with full approval.It is recommended that the faculty continueto administer the Programmatic Climate Survey and assess for programperformance.
v. TheEarly Childhood Education (M.A.T.)It is recommended that the program be given probationary status as aresult of not meeting South Carolina Commission on Higher Education ProgramProductivity Standards.
vi. Allprograms with the exception of the Early Childhood (M.A.T.) program meet theSouth Carolina Commission on Higher Education Program Productivity Standards asrequired.However, it should benotedthat nine of the programs (ArtEducation K-12/BS, Business Education/B.S., Health Education K-12/B.S., Family& Consumer Science/B.S., French/B.A. and B.S., Spanish/B.S.,Chemistry/B.S., Social Sciences/B.A., and Dramatic Arts/B.A.) suffer from lowenrollment of majors or degrees and barely meet Program ProductivityStandards.It is recommended that theseprograms be monitored closely in the future and that the unit develop plans toincrease and maintain enrollments.
vii. Itis recommended that the institution initiate a study team with broadrepresentation for the purpose of assessing the current campus impact oftechnology on curriculum and instruction.As an outcome of the review, a long-term and a short-term plan with recommendationsof how to upgrade the infusion of technology into the curriculum should bedeveloped.Resources should beallocated to implement the plan and formative and summative evaluation shouldbe made annually.
viii. Itis recommended that qualifications and expectations of faculty teaching inadvanced graduate programs be reviewed resulting in an updated publication ofthe criteria for designation as graduate faculty as a means of ensuring betterarticulation.
ix. Itis recommended that the requirements for doctorate faculty scholarship andresearch be clarified and that established criteria for designation as facultyin a terminal degree program be held by all who are teaching in the program.
x. It is recommended that teaching loads of all facultyresponsible for the delivery of advanced degree programs be reviewed and thatthe necessary steps be taken to ensure their loads be limited to the publishednumber of prescribed credit hours.Ifnecessary, the number of students in the program should be limited or thenumber of faculty serving the programs should be increased.
UNIVERSITY OFSOUTH CAROLINA-COLUMBIA
Curriculum & Inst.Ed..D.Approval
Instructional MediaM.Ed.Probation *
Ed. Res. & Meas.M.A.Termination**
Foundations of Ed.Ph.D.Approval
Special EducationM.Ed.Visually Hand.Approval
EarlyChild. Spec. Ed.Approval
Student Personnel Serv.M.A.Termination**
Counselor EducationM.A.Elementary CounselorApproval
Early Childhood Ed.M.A.Approval
Secondary EducationM.A.Social StudiesApproval
Early Child./Elem. Ed.M.A.T.Approval
Art Teacher Ed.B.F.AApproval
Business Teacher Ed.M.AT.Approval
Health Teacher Ed.M.S.Approval
Health Ed. Adm.Ed.D.Approval
Health Promotion & Ed.M.S.P.Approval
Music Teacher Ed.B.M.E.Approval
A Continuing Accreditation visit was conducted by an NCATEBoard of Examiners team on October 26-30, 1996.The University of South Carolina-Columbia served as the pilotinstitution for the new partnership involving the National Council forAccreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), the State Department of Education(SDE), and the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education.As a pilot review no off-campus programswere examined.The Board of Examinersreport indicated that previous weaknesses identified in the last NCATE reporthad been removed and no new weaknesses were identified.A number of changes and initiatives werereported, the most significant being the establishment of eleven ProfessionalDevelopment Schools, participation in the Goodlad National Network forEducational Renewal, and membership in the Holmes Group.
At its April, 1997, meeting the NCATE Unit AccreditationBoard, after reviewing materials and reports, rendered a decision to continueaccreditation of the College of Education at the initial teacher preparationand advanced levels.
The consultant for the Commission on Higher Educationserved as a member of the Board of Examiners team for the October 1996, visitparticipating fully in the decision making process.The consultant identified overall concerns/weaknesses in the unitas follows:
1. Althoughexcellent technology and computer equipment and facilities are now present,their use is not being addressed consistently or utilized evenly across allprograms and levels.Not all facultyare employing technology or incorporating it appropriately into instructionalactivities.
2. Facultyproductivity is uneven with about one-fourth of the faculty involved insecuring grants and contracts.This isa bit out of balance for a leading research university.
3. Facultyworkloads are somewhat skewed and uneven from one department to another andeven, occasionally within a department.
4. Operatingbudgets for several of the units of the College are substantially below thetypical level for units of this type in other research universities, especiallyflagship institutions.The operatingsupport of the College ranks 11th among 15 at USC.This low ranking raises questions as totheadequacy of overall support of theteacher education program compared to the rest of the university.Allocations to the College of Education maynot have kept pace with the changing environment in which teachers and otherschool personnel are being prepared these days.Because of the national reform movement involving an increasedemphasis on collaboration with P-12 schools, the growth of collaborativeProfessional Development Schools, more extensive field experiences and theaccompanying need for intensive supervision for these, and increased attentionto induction year programs for beginning teachers and other school personnel,the cost of such programs has risen substantially in recent years.
5. Withinthe unit, it appears there may also be discrepancies among the four departmentsin average faculty salaries beyond that which would be expected due tolegitimate marketplace differences.Boththe Department of Instruction and Teacher Education and the Department ofEducational Psychology appear to be disadvantaged in average salaries atUSC.Data are available from nationalorganizations for baseline marketplace comparisons.
6. Thereis a plethora of terminal degrees in education available to students at theUniversity of South Carolina-Columbia, especially at the doctorate level.These often appear to have similar generalstructures, program requirements, and underlying philosophies of purpose.There especially appears to be a blurring ofthe differences between the Ed.D. and the Ph.D. in Education degrees.
7. Thereare a number of programs at the Master Degree level with low enrollment,degrees awarded, and majors.Although,in most instances, these programs are trying to address legitimate needs theyhave productivity problems.
8. Thefinancial support for faculty travel to attend and participate in national andregional professional meetings, conferences, and professional development activitiesis minimal.Exposure to such endeavorsis extremely important both for the enhancement of the reputation of theUniversity and the development and expansion of the faculties expertise.
9. Thereis a need for more support for graduate students, especially in the form ofteaching or research assistants.
The Commission consultant was also responsible forreviewing programs that were not part of the NCATE folio review process.A report on each program follows:
Master of Arts and Master of Education in Communityand Occupational Programs
in Education (COPE):These degrees/programs were designed for persons who work asprofessional educators outside of the traditional P-12 schools, especially inenterprises that deal with adult learners.Their primary focus is on adult education.The essential difference between the two degrees is that the M.A.requires a formal thesis while the M.Ed. does not.The M.A. has been virtually dormant the past few years.In terms of productivity, the M.Ed. programhas averaged 27.6 degrees awarded and has an average of 100.8 students enrolledover the five-year period.It isrecommended that the M.Ed. program be continued with full approval and that theM..A. program be discontinued or subsumed under a generic degree title.
Master of Arts in Educational Administration Degree:This degree was designed for prospectiveeducational leaders NOT seeking South Carolina certification.It is primarily for those aspiring to becomeprincipals in private P-12 schools, or attaining positions in institutions ofhigher education administration.Itneeds to be made more accessible to a wider audience, perhaps through the useof distance learning and it needs to be infused with course work andexperiences designed to make all of its students technologically literate andcompetent.In terms of programproductivity, it appears to meet the Commission requirements.Because data were aggregated with that ofthe M.Ed. program, precise data for the program was not reported.However, the department reported thatapproximately 20 M.A. degrees in Educational Administration were conferred eachyear.The program is recommended forcontinuation with full approval.
Master of Education in Educational Administration:This degree was designed to fulfill therequirements for certification as a school district principal in SouthCarolina.This program also needs to bemade accessible to a wider audience and it also needs to infuse appropriateknowledge and experience components to ensure its students are technologicallyliterate and competent.Data for theprogram is aggregated with the similar Master of Arts program.It surpasses the Commission’s ProgramProductivity Standard as it graduates an average of 60 students and has over200 majors per year.It is recommendedfor continuation with full approval.
Master of Education and Master of Arts inEducational Research:Thesedegrees were designed to develop competence in the critical reading of bothquantitative and qualitative research, use of common tools in doing research,and effectively develop and use standardized tests.The major difference between the two degrees is a thesis requiredfor the Master of Arts program.TheMaster of Arts program has low enrollments and there is a lack of meaningfuldifferentiation between the M.Ed. and the M..A. degrees.In terms of productivity, data revealed
that over theprevious five-year period, an average of 1.8 degrees were awarded and there wasan average of 7.1 majors in the program.However, it produces a large number of service hours as courses taughtin these programs are necessary to the entire complex of graduate students inthe field of education.It isrecommended that the Master of Education Degree be continued with full approvaland that the Master of Arts Degree in Educational Research be discontinued orsubsumed under a generic degree.
Master of Education in Instructional Technology:The former M.Ed. in Instructional media wasreorganized and renamed in 1996.Theprogram was designed to prepare qualified professional educators to design,develop, manage, and evaluate technology-based learning environments with anemphasis on computer technology applications.Since this program began in June 1996, data were not available at thetime of the visit to provide a great deal of evaluation or to measure it interms of the Commission’s Program Productivity Standards.Recent data indicated that the program hashad 2.9 majors, 1.2 degrees, and 2.3 service hours.It does not meet Program Productivity Standards and should beplaced on probation.
Master of Education and Master of Arts in SecondaryEducation:These degrees weredesigned to provide advanced professional studies for persons who currentlyhold teacher certification and who aspire to further professional developmentin secondary education.The twodegrees share common faculty, resources, administration, and facilities.There needs to be an expansion of the corerequirements to cover ethnology, multicultural education,assessment topics, and to attend to theinculcation of the use of inquiry and reflection in students.The current faculty is stretched very thinbecause of heavy advisement loads.There is a need for more faculty to support the program and the faculty need to increase theirscholarly productivity.In terms ofproductivity, over the past five-year period an average of 41.6 degrees wereawarded.There are an average of 600majors enrolled per year.Faculty notonly staff this program but they also double as the faculty for the doctorateprogram in secondary education.This isa very heavy burden compared to others in the College.It is recommended that this program becontinued with full approval and with a strong recommendation that a genericdegree be explored for this area of specialization, especially as it relates tothe Master of Arts Degree.
Master of Education and Master of Arts in StudentPersonnel Service:The Masterof Arts program has been essentially dormant for the past several years.The Master of Education Degree programattracts top students from across the country.It places its graduates in an array of colleges and universities atnational and international levels.The program was designed to prepare graduates for college studentaffairs positions.Over 100 graduateassistantships are awarded each year to students in the program and the numberof applicants exceeds the number of slots available.In terms of productivity, over the past five-years an average of49.6 degrees were awarded, and there has been an average of 73.8 full-timestudents and 63.6 part-time students enrolled.This surpasses the Commission’s Standards.It is recommended that the Master ofEducation Degree in Student Personnel be continued with a commendation ofexcellence.The Master of Arts Degreehas been dormant in recent years and it is recommended that the degree beterminated and subsumed under a generic degree.
Educational Specialist in EducationalAdministration:The degreeprogram was designed to fulfill the requirement for certification as a schooldistrict superintendent in the State of South Carolina.It underwent a major revision in 1989.The curriculum of the program is carefullyaligned with the state requirements for the superintendent’s credential.As with other programs, it could benefit byexpansion through the use of distance education that will provide greateraccess to the program.The programneeds to provide more skills and competency in computer and technology usageand applications in school operations to candidates.Faculty who serve this program also serve other degree programsin Educational Administration but workloads are comparable to other researchuniversities.In terms of theCommission’s Program Productivity Standards, the five-year average shows 18.0degrees awarded each year with approximately 100 students enrolled eachyear.This meets the ProductivityStandards of the Commission.It isrecommended that the Educational Specialist in Educational AdministrationDegree be continued with full approval.
Educational Specialist in Teaching:The degree and program were designed forprofessional classroom teachers who desire to remain in the role of a teacherrather than pursuing careers in school administration or some other ancillaryspecialty.Although initiated in 1992,it had only begun to attract enrollments at the time of the visit. Currentprogram productivity data indicate 6.7 majors, 4.8 degrees awarded, and 42.8service hours. The program meets the productivity standards.Faculty who serve this program also serveother programs as well but workloads area comparable to other researchuniversities.There were no graduatesof the program at the time of the visit.At the time of the visit, the program did not meet the Commission’sProgram Productivity Standards.It isrecommended that it be continued with full approval.
Educational Doctorate in Curriculum and Instruction:This degree and program were designed toprepare or further develop mid-career professional educators for leadershiproles with particular expertise in curriculum design, development, andimplementation.Furthermore, it wasdesigned to develop expertise in instructional strategies and applicationswithin either a general or a focused framework.The use of cohort groups and its recent curriculum additions inthe areas of technology and multicultural education have been positive featuresof the program.There is a lack offinancial support for internships for Ed.D. students and an oversupply ofapplicants for the number of slots available in the program.In terms of productivity, there has been anaverage of 18.0 degrees awarded over the most recent five-year period.Over the past five-years there has been anaverage of 6.8 full-time students and 119.4 part-time students enrolled in theprogram.The program meets theCommission’s Program Productivity Standards.It is recommended for continuation with full approval.
Educational Doctorate in Health EducationAdministration:This degreeand program were designed to train Health Educators for leadership positions inprivate and public schools and post-secondary institutions of highereducation.While the degree isconferred by the College of Education, the program is entirely administered asa part of the activities of the Department of Health Promotion and Educationwithin the School of Public Health.Itsstrengths are excellent field experiences and internships.A weakness in the program is the lack ofoffice space and facilities for student research.In terms of productivity, over the last five years there havebeen 1 an average 2.0 degrees awarded.There has been an average of 4.4 majors per year and it minimally meetsthe Commission’s Productivity Standards.It is recommended that the program be continued with full approval.
Doctor of Philosophy in Early Childhood Education:This degree was relatively new at the timeof the NCATE review, having been approved for initiation in 1994.It was made an autonomous degree programafter being an option in the Ph.D. in Elementary Education.The program appears to feature awill-constructed curriculum and is attracting high-quality doctoralstudents.At the time of the visit, nodegrees had been awarded and there were 17 doctoral students enrolled in theprogram.Recent productivity dataindicate 9.1 majors, 2.6 degrees awarded and 205.6 service hours which meetProgram Productivity Standards.Theprogram would benefit from additional monies for support of doctoralstudents.It is recommended that thePh.D. program in Early Childhood Education be continued on a probationarystatus until it has sustained adequate enrollments for five years.
Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Administration:Within the program there are two options:one prepares professionals for the P-12 schools and the other for highereducation.Although this is a robustacademic program, it is limited by a lack of assistantships or fellowships sothat more doctoral students can matriculate as full-time students.In terms of productivity, the program hasconferred an average of 28.2 Ph.D. degrees – and has enrolled an average of 165students over the past five years.Itsurpasses the Commission’s Standards in terms of degrees awarded and studentsenrolled.The Ph.D. program inEducational Administration is recommended for continuation with full approval.
Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Research:The degree and program were designed todevelop expertise in research design, measurement, evaluation, andtesting.Additionally, the programdevelops expertise in statistical, psychometric, and qualitative methodologiesapplicable to educational research.Faculty in this area offer a large number of service courses required ascore research tools in other programs.Faculty loads are roughly comparable to but somewhat heavier than thoseat other research universities with Ph.D. programs of this type.The program’s budget was judged to be at theminimal level of support.In terms ofproductivity, over a five-year period there have been an average of 2.8 degreesawarded with an average of 5.4 full-time students and 19.2 part-timestudents.These averages meet theCommission’s Productivity Standards.The program is recommended for continuation with full approval.
Doctor of Philosophy in Elementary Education:The degree and program were designed toprepare teacher education leadership personnel in elementary education for P-12school districts, state or national agencies, or as a professor in highereducation institutions.Facultyserving this program also serve other programs as well and as a group, theycarry a heavy load.Faculty loads arequite heavy when compared to typical faculty loads at other researchuniversities.Faculty in this programalso function as leaders in the master’s level degree program which adds totheir loads.The operating budget forthe department the program is housed in is below the typical support providedfor units with similar missions in research universities. In terms ofproductivity,over the past five-yearsan average of 9.0 degrees have been awarded and an average of 38.2 doctoralstudents enrolled per year.The programmeets the Commission’s Productivity Standards and it is recommended forcontinuation with full approval.
Doctor of Philosophy in Foundations of Education:The degree and program were designed to prepareacademic scholars for faculty positions in higher education and otherleadership positions in two major areas of specialization.These separate, non-overlapping tracks ofstudy are: (1) educational psychology, and (2) social, historical and philosophicalfoundations.The instructional cohortof the program has been weakened due to retirements and resignations.There is also a lack of ethnic and racialdiversity of the faculty.The unitshould analyze this and take appropriate steps to strengthen the cohort.In terms of productivity, an average of 3.0degrees have been awarded, with 10.1 majors, and 146.3 service hours.This meets the requirements of theCommission’s Productivity Standards.Itis recommended that the program be continued with full approval.
Doctor of Philosophy in PhysicalEducation:The degreeand program were designed specifically to prepare graduates to assume teachingand research positions in higher education in the areas of physical educationpedagogy and/or motor development and learning.It is one of the few programs nationally that prepares doctorallevel specialists in physical education pedagogy.There is a lack of ethnic and racial diversity in theprogram.Because of its narrow focus,the department is encouraged to strengthen its contact with former students andgraduates in order to obtain feedback on how it might be improved.Although this is a small program, it isunique and appears to be meeting a narrow needs since its graduates have beenactively sought.Productivity dataindicate 7.9 majors, 1.4 degrees awarded, and 421.8 service hours which meetthe productivity standards. It is recommended that the program be continuedwith full approval.
Doctor of Philosophy in Secondary Education:The degree and program were designed forthose individuals who desire to pursue a careerin research and/or teaching at institutions of higher education,research institutes, or state or national agencies.Faculty carry a heavy load as they are also involved in otherprograms and degrees.Collectively,faculty scholarly productivity is low, especially for a research university.This program shares professors and courses with students enrolled in the Ed.D.program in Curriculum and Instruction which results in problems in determiningfaculty loadand studentenrollment.The program appears to be alow cost program with heavy faculty loads, low financial support, and a largestudent enrollment in courses in other programs in this area ofspecialization.Additional facultyshould be added to support this program.Ethnic and racial diversity is not represented and also needs to beaddressed.The operating budget for thedepartment the program is housed in is below the typical support provided forunits with similar missions in research universities.In terms of productivity, there have been 3.5 majors, 0.2 degreesawarded and 138.6 service hours.Theprogram only meets productivity standards through service enrollment and shouldbe monitored carefully.The program isrecommended for continuation with full approval.
Doctor of Philosophy in Special Education:The degree is a new program which was justinitiated in 1995.No degrees had beenawarded at the time of the visit.Itwas designed to prepare leaders in special education programs for schools, forinstitutions of higher education, and for other appropriate special educationleadership positions in South Carolina or the Southeast.There has not as yet been time for theprogram to establish a track record so any rating would be premature.However, the program would benefit fromadditional monies for support of doctoral students and the faculty andadministration of the program.Productivity data indicate 3.5 majors, 0.2 degrees awarded and 138.6service hours.The program only meetsthe productivity standards due to service hours.
The Commission consultant applied the South CarolinaCommission on Higher Education’s Program Productivity Standards to all teachereducation programs at the University of South Carolina-Columbia.As a result, several programs wereidentified as not meeting the Program Productivity Standards in terms of dataon either the number of degrees awarded or the number of majors.Those which were low on two of the threecriteria were:
M.A.T./I.M.A.Geography:One degree awarded inthe last five years;
average of 1.5 majors with no servicehours reported.
M.A.T./I.M.A. German:An average of six degrees awarded, 4.8majors and 26.3 service hours reported.
M.A.T./I.M.A. Earth Sciences:Eleven degrees awarded in the last five-years, average enrollments of 4.6 per year, and no service hours reported.
M.A.T./I.M.A. Physics:An average of 4.2 degrees awarded, 7.5majors, and 39.2 service hours were reported.
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA-COLUMBIA
1) TheUniversity of South Carolina-Columbia was granted continuing accreditation byNCATE at both the initial teacher preparation and advanced levels in April,1997.The College of Education as theteacher education unit is fully accredited by NCATE.
2) Thetwenty-three programs reviewed by the Commission on Higher Education consultantthat were not part of the NCATE curriculum folio review process follow with arecommendation.
i) Masterof Arts and Master of Education Degree in Community and Occupational Programsin Education (COPE).The Masterof Arts degree has been dormant the past few years and it is recommended thatthe degree be terminated or subsumed under a generic degree title.It is recommended that the Master ofEducation Degree be continued with full approval.
ii) Masterof Arts in Educational Administration:The program is recommended for continuation with full approval withsuggestions to explore distance education to improve accessibility to theprogram and to infuse the use of technology into the curriculum.
iii) Masterof Education in Educational Administration:The program is recommended for continuation with full approvalwith suggestions to explore distance education and to infuse appropriateknowledge and experience components to ensure students are technologicallyliterate and competent.
iv) Masterof Education /Master of Arts in Educational Research.The Master of Education degree program isrecommended for continuation with full approval.However, it is recommended that the Master of Arts degree be terminatedor subsumed under a generic degree due to low enrollment. There is littledifferentiation between it and the M.Ed. degree.
v) Masterof Education in Instructional Technology.The program is recommended to be placed on probationary statusbecause of not meeting Commission Productivity Standards. The program isrelevant and needed to serve educators in the area.
vi) Masterof Education & Master of Arts in Secondary Education:The program is recommended for continuationwith full approval.The unit shouldexplore offering a generic degree for this area of specialization, especiallyin regard to the Master of Arts Degree.The core courses need to be expanded to cover ethnology, multiculturaleducation, assessment topics, and the use of inquiry.The program needs the support of additional faculty and currentfaculty must increase their scholarly productivity.
vii) Masterof Education and Master of Arts in Student Personnel Service:The Master of Arts program has beenessentially dormant for the past several years and it is recommended that it beterminated or subsumed as part of a generic degree.The Master of Education Degree isrecommended for continuation with a commendation of excellence.
viii) EducationalSpecialist in Educational Administration:The program is recommended for continuation with full approval with asuggestion that it be considered for delivery by distance education to expandaccessibility.It is also recommendedthat attention be given to providing more courses that incorporate skills andcompetency in computer and technology usage.
ix) EducationalSpecialist in Teaching:It isrecommended that the program be continued with full approval.
x) EducationalDoctorate in Curriculum & Instruction:The program is recommended for continuation with full approval.Attention needs to be given to the lack offinancial support for internshipsandan oversupply of applicants for the number of slots available.
xi) EducationalDoctorate in Health Education Administration:The program is recommended for continuation with fullapproval.The program needs to exploreoptions to increase office space and facilities for student research.It meets the Commission’s productivitystandards.
xii) Ph.D. in Early Childhood Education:It is recommended that the program becontinued with full
xiii) Ph.D.in Educational Administration:Theprogram is recommended for continuation with full approval.The unit should explore ways to increase thenumber of doctoral students who can enroll in the program on a full-timebasis.The program meets theCommission’s productivity standards.
xiv) Ph.D. inEducational Research:The programis recommended for continuation with full approval. Faculty in this area offera large number of service courses required as core research tools in otherprograms.The unit should analyze thesituation to determine if additional faculty should be hired to support theprogram.It meets the Commission’s productivitystandards and appears to be serving a need.
xv)Ph.D. inElementary Education:The programis recommended for continuation with full approval as it is meeting needs ofeducators in the State and it meets the Commission’s productivitystandards.However, the unit shouldexamine faculty loads, financial support, and ways to enhance faculty research.
xvi) Ph.D. inFoundations of Education.Theprogram is recommended for continuation with full approval.It meets the Commission’s productivitystandards.The unit should analyzefaculty support for the program and devise a plan to increase ethnic and racialdiversity of the faculty.
xvii) Ph.D.in Physical Education:The programis recommended for continuation with full approval.Although it is a small program, it appears to meet a unique needand graduates are actively sought nationally. The unit should devise a plan toincrease ethnic and racial diversity of the program.A survey of former students should be undertaken to obtainfeedback for program improvement.
xviii) Ph.D. inSecondary Education:The program isrecommended for continuation with full approval.It is a low cost program as it shares faculty and courses withother degree programs, especially the Ed.D. in Curriculum and Instruction.The unit should analyze faculty support forthe program and devise a plan to increase ethnic and racial diversity of thefaculty.The program meets theCommission’s productivity standards.
xix) Ph.D. inSpecial Education:The program is recommendedfor continuation with full approval.However, productivity in the program is very low and needs to bemonitored.There is a need for theprogram in South Carolina to prepare individuals for leadership in specialeducation.The unit is encouraged toenhance financial support to the program for doctoral students and faculty andadministration support.
3) TheCommission’s consultant also identified several overall weaknesses.Following are recommendations for thoseweaknesses.
i) Itis recommended that the College of Education increase its incentives andstrategies to increase technology applications and make more consistent andconstant use of computers and other technologies by all faculty/staff in allinstructional programs.
ii) Itis recommended that attention continue to be directed toward facultyproductivity across the unit.Renewedefforts should be mounted and incentives be employed to motivate and developinterest and capability of all faculty toward increased scholarly activities,especially research and publication.
iii) Itis recommended that the faculty and administration of the College of Educationdevelop more detailed guidelines for faculty work assignments specific to theCollege of Education and these be employed to balance work loads across allprograms and faculty.
iv) It isrecommended that an analysis of the internal allocation system be carried outto insure that all departments and programs within the College are receivingfair, justified, and an adequate share of the College operating budget.
v) Itis recommended that the unit make optimum efforts to secure, within theinstitution , a fair, justified and adequate level of support for all programsin light of new and added educational reform activities.
vi) It isalso recommended that an internal study in the College of Educationbe conducted to study the comparative levelsof faculty members to see if average and individual salaries are fair,justified, and appropriate in each case.
vii) It isrecommended that the College of Education undertake an analysis of the plethoraof degrees and programs offered in the College and see if they are justifiedand if the development of generic degrees subsuming a number of programs underthe generic degree is feasible, especially in light of low productivity ofseveral programs.
viii) It isrecommended that the University of South Carolina-Columbia take the leadnationally in creating true differentiation between the Ph.D. and Ed.D. degreesin education.This could be done bycreating obvious contrasts in terms of underlying philosophies, purposes,program requirements, and the way in which research is inculcated to doctoralstudents pursuing each degree.
ix) It isrecommended that the College of Education conduct a study of Master degreeprograms in light of low enrollments and degrees awarded and examine theestablishment of generic degrees subsuming a number of degrees into the onegeneric degree.In order to streamlineand compress the array of Master’s degrees offered, it is suggested that theCollege of Education collapse several of the M.A.T., M.Ed., and I.M.A. degreesinto more generic degree programs with “areas of concentration” or “options” inthe various content areas.For example,Social Studies, Fine Arts, or Natural Sciences.This would reduce paperwork, low program enrollments,proliferation of degree programs, and enhance accountability.
x) Itis recommended that adequate travel support be provided to attend andparticipate in national and regional professional meetings, conferences, and professionaldevelopment activities.
xi) It isrecommended that more support be provided for graduate students in internshipsand more teaching/research assistantships.Office space and facilities for student research also need to beprovided.
xii) It isrecommended that attention be directed to providing more skills and competencyin computer and technology usage and that technology be infused into coursework and experiences designed to make all students technologically literate andcompetent.
xiii) It isrecommended that the use of distance education be explored as a means toprovide accessibility to courses, programs and degrees for students.
4) Asa result of programs not meeting the South Carolina Commission on HigherEducation Program Productivity Standards the following recommendations apply:
i) M.A.T./I.M.A.Geography:It is recommended thisprogram be continued on probationary status.
ii) M.A.T./I.M.A.German.It is recommended that theprogram be continued on probationary status.
iii) M.A.T./I.M.A.Earth Sciences:It is recommendedthat the program be continued on probationary status.
iv) M.A.T./I.M.A.Physics:It is recommended that theprogram be continued on a probationary status.
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA-AIKEN
Early Childhood Ed.B.A.Ed.Approval
Early Childhood Ed.B.A.Ed.USC-BeaufortApproval
An Initial Accreditation visit was conducted by an NCATEBoard of Examiners team on February 7-10, 1999, at the University of SouthCarolina-Aiken.The UAB reported thatall of the standards were met and identified four weaknesses.
Four weaknesses were identified as follows:(1) (Initial) the conceptualframework
is not clearly articulated by USC-Aiken at theUSC-Beaufort campus adjunct faculty, cooperating teachers, and students.(Advanced)the conceptual framework is not clearly delineated throughout the M.Ed.program; (2) the unit does not assure that part-time faculty areknowledgeable about current practice related to the use of computers andtechnology as they are integrated into teaching-learning; (3) the unitdoes not have sufficient full-time, tenure-track faculty to support theintegrity, quality, and continuity of the programs; and (4) the unitdoes not have sufficient full-time clerical staff to support the programsoffered.
At its October 1999 meeting, the NCATE Unit AccreditationBoar, after reviewing the material and reports, rendered a decision to accreditthe School of Education at the University of South Carolina-Aiken at theinitial teacher preparation and advanced level.
The consultant for the Commission on Higher Educationserved as a member of the Board of Examiners team and participated fully in thedecision making process.The consultantwas also responsible for reviewing the one program (Master of Education inElementary Education degree-M.Ed. )that was not part of the NCATE curriculumfolio review process.The Master ofEducation in Elementary Education is a relatively new degree under the controlof the Aiken campus beginning in 1997.Prior to this, it was under the control of USC-Columbia.
As a result, there was limited longitudinal data fromstudents and employers.To date, a highdegree of satisfaction is expressed by students and professionals in the arearegarding the quality of the program.The program has limited financial and personnel resources.In terms of productivity, the program hasaveraged 2.0 degrees, an average of 8.9 majors which meets the CommissionProgram Productivity Standards criteria for these two areas.The program fell below the service hoursstandard as an average of 9.3 service hours were generated.
Four concerns/weaknesses were identified for the Master ofEducation in Elementary Education degree programs as follows:
- The conceptual framework needs to drive the program (not individual courses) and it needs to be fully integrated throughout the program.
- Currently the degree is a collection of courses rather than a program.Opportunities other than course workare important for part-time students to truly be part of a program.
- There needs to be more diversity in both faculty and students in the program and more males need to be in the program.
- Faculty scholarship and scholarly activities need to be increased, especially in the area of research.
- Additional financial and human resources need to be allocated to the Master of Education degree program in Elementary Education.Additional full-time tenure-track faculty and support staff are needed, particularly a faculty member in social studies.
The consultant also identified three otherweaknesses/concerns with the total operation of the School of Education at theUniversity of South Carolina-Aiken.
- There is a problem with the coordination of the Early Childhood Education program at the USC-Beaufort campus, as it does not consistently reflect the dynamic educator conceptual framework.
2. Thereis an over-reliance on part-time and adjunct faculty to deliver programs.While there are many qualifiedpart-time/adjunct faculty available, there is a crucial need for a “criticalmass” of full-time tenure-track and tenured professors to provide theleadership necessary to developmentally examine and revise programs, advisestudents, serve on school and university committees, and reach out to schoolsin the area.
- The School of Education has limited financial and human resources to conduct quality programs.There is a dire need for additional tenure track professors and support staff.Specifically, there is a need for a tenure track professor with expertise in social studies.Additional staff support is needed in the Office of the Head of the School of Education and for the coordinator of the Master of Education Degree in Elementary Education.
The Commission consultant was also charged with theresponsibility of applying the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education’sProgram Productivity Standards to all teacher education programs at theUniversity of South Carolina-Aiken.All programs in teacher education at the University of SouthCarolina-Aiken meet the Commission on Higher Education Program ProductivityStandards as they meet the requirement that at least one of the three areasmust be me.
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHCAROLINA-AIKEN
1) TheUniversity of South Carolina-Aiken was granted accreditation by NCATE at boththe initial teacher preparation and advanced level programs in October,1999.All programs are thereforeapproved and should be continued with full approval.
2) Theweaknesses identified in the UAB report must be dealt with by the School ofEducation and progress submitted in their annual report to NCATE.It is recommended that the School move asquickly as possible to remedy the weaknesses that were identified.
3) Theone program reviewed by the Commission’s consultant since it was not part ofthe NCATE curriculum folio review process (Master of Education in ElementaryEducation Degree) met the Commission’s Program Productivity Standards and it isrecommended for approval and continuation with full approval with the followingrecommendations to correct the four weaknesses identified:
i) Itis recommended that the School review the program and fully integrate theconceptual model in all aspects of the program.The curriculum and courses should be a result of the review whichmay mean revision of current courses or the development of new courses.
ii) Itis recommended that the faculty involved in graduate education look upon theMaster of Education in Elementary Education degree as a total program, not justa collection of courses.To do this,planning must be done to involve the students (mostly part-time) in differentexperiences outside the traditional classroom. Special projects/activities, or collaborative research withfaculty members, and membership and attendance at professional organizationmeetings are some examples.
iii) Itis recommended that a plan to recruit more diversity in both faculty andstudents be developed and implemented.The plan should include strategies to enroll more male students.
iv) It isrecommended that an internal study be undertaken to look at faculty loadstaking into account not only teaching assignments, but also all of the thingsfaculty are involved in such as advising and committee work.As part of the study, a plan should bedeveloped and implemented for each faculty member to develop an annualprofessional development plan that will increase the faculty member’sscholarship and scholarly activities, especially in the area of research.The plans should also be used in the annualfaculty evaluation process.Supportfor professional development by the administration in terms of additionalfinancial resources is essential to the success of professional development andincreased scholarly productivity.
4) Recommendationsfor the other concerns/weaknesses identified by the Commission’s consultant areas follows:
i) TheSchool of Education must take steps to ensure that the conceptual model beconsistently reflected in the Early Childhood Education program offered at theUSC-Beaufort campus.
ii) Itis recommended that additional financial and human resources be allocated tothe School of Education and especially for the Master of Education in ElementaryEducation degree program.A proposalidentifying the need to reduce the number of part-time/adjunct faculty needs tobe submitted for funding by the Administration.There is an immediate need for a full-time tenure-track professorwith expertise in social studies and the Coordinator of the program needsclerical assistance.
5) Allprograms in teacher education at the University of South Carolina-Aiken meetthe requirements of the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Program ProductivityStandards and should be continue with full approval.
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHCAROLINA-SPARTANBURG
Early Childhood Ed.B.A.Ed.Approval
Early Childhood Ed.M.Ed.Approval
An Initial Accreditation visit was conducted by an NCATE Boardof Examiners team on February 28-March 4, 1998 for the University of SouthCarolina-Spartanburg.The UABreported that Standard II.B (Composition of Candidates) was not met at theadvanced level, and that Standard III.B (Composition of Faculty) was not met ateither the initial or advanced levels.
Eleven weaknesses were identified as follows: (1)the conceptual framework is not understood by members of the largerprofessional community including cooperating teachers; (2) requiredcourse work and experiences in physical education do not adequately reflect thephilosophy of the education unit nor the elements of the conceptual framework; (3)at the initial and advanced levels, there is no explicit plan at the unit levelto recruit, admit, or retain a diverse student body;(4) there is no explicit unit plan for recruiting, hiring,and retaining a diverse faculty.
At its October 1998, meeting, the NCATE Unit AccreditationBoard, after reviewing the materials and reports, rendered a decision toaccredit the School of Education at the University of SouthCarolina-Spartanburg at the initial teacher preparation and advanced levels.
The consultant for the Commission of Higher Educationserved as a member of the Board of Examiners and participated fully in thedecision-making process.The consultantwas also responsible for reviewing the one program (Master of Education inElementary Education Degree) that was not part of the NCATE curriculum folioprocess.The program is relatively newwith a three-year history which results in little longitudinal data.The program has produced an average of 5.5degrees awarded, had an average of 3.6 majors, and generated an average of 13.9service hours during the time the program has been in existence.The program meets or exceeds the CommissionProgram Productivity Standards in the average number of degrees awarded andservice hours.However, it falls justbelow the standard of 6.0 majors.
Six weaknesses were identified by the consultant in theMaster of Education in Elementary Education degree that need attention asfollows:
1. Thereis unevenness in the scholarly productivity of the faculty and much of the workis localized.New faculty have not hadtime to establish a professional development plan and do not have a seasonedmentor.
- There is currently no plan for recruitment of students into the degree program and there needs to be one especially for the recruitment of cultural diversity and male candidates.
- Currently the degree is a collection of courses rather than a program.Opportunities other than course work are important for part-time students to truly be part of the program.
- The use of portfolios and reflective journals is a great asset for the program.However, there is a lack of consistency in the use ofportfolios and reflective journals.
- New faculty members need to be groomed for more responsibility in the program and all faculty need a professional development plan that is tied into annual evaluations.
- Students in the program are not actively engaged in conducting research. A course in methods of research is required, but students would benefit from actually designing, conducting, and reporting on research related to their P-12 classrooms.
The consultant also identified weaknesses/concerns with thetotal operation of the School of Education at USC-Spartanburg as follows:
- There is an unevenness across the unit and also with other educators outside the unit in articulation and integration of the conceptual framework. Not everyone outside the unit has been informed about the conceptual framework to the point where they can determine what it is.
- Review of faculty vita found an uneven engagement in scholarly activity.New faculty, in particular, need assistance to plan and to be supported in their scholarly activities.
- Course syllabi and bibliographies do not always reflect the use of current texts, publications, and professional journals.
- Candidates seeking admission to the teacher education program who posses a baccalaureate degree are not required to meet the same general education requirements as do candidates who are earning initial degrees.
- The graduate programs need to move beyond just a collection of courses and become a “total” program.A total program expands beyond just courses and includes credit and non-credit experiences that contribute to the professional development of the students
- The criteria for designation as graduate faculty do not seem to be clear and understood.It appears that the only criterion is the doctorate degree while scholarship and scholarly activities do not appear to be an requirement.
- The use of part-time of adjunct faculty to teach graduate-level courses needs to be closely monitored by the unit.
- The number of students in the Master’s degree programs is small and there is little cultural diversity in the student body.
- There is an unevenness in how portfolios, reflective journals, and case studies are used by individual faculty members with students.There also needs to be greater clarity between portfolios used for program completion and individual courses.
- Although the Master of Education degree program requires a course on research, students are not required to actually conduct any research.Students need to go beyond being exposed to methods of research by undertaking active research projects.
The Commission consultant was also charged with theresponsibility of applying the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education’sProgram Productivity Standards to all teacher education programs at theUniversity of South Carolina-Spartanburg.All programs at the University of South Carolina-Spartanburg in teachereducation except for the M.Ed. in Early Childhood Education meet theCommission’s Program Productivity Standards.The M.Ed. in Early Childhood Education degree program is placed onprobation for not meeting the standards.
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA-SPARTANBURG
1) TheUniversity of South Carolina-Spartanburg was granted accreditation by NCATE atboth the initial teacher preparation and advanced level in October, 1998. Allprograms should be continued with full approval.
2) StandardII.B (Composition of Candidates), and Standard III.B (Composition of Faculty)which were not met, must be dealt with by the School of Education and progresstowards meeting these standards and addressing the weakness must be submittedin their annual report to NCATE.Itis recommended that the School of Education move as quickly as possible toremedy the standards not met and the weaknesses identified.
3) Theone program reviewed by the Commission consultant since it was not part of theNCATE curriculum folio review process (Master of Education in ElementaryEducation Degree) met the Commission’s Program Productivity Standards.It is recommended for continuation with fullapproval with the following recommendations to correct the six weaknessesidentified:
i) Itis recommended that an internalreviewbe made of faculty scholarship and scholarly activities establishingexpectations and guidelines for faculty.All faculty need to be engaged in scholarly activities and new facultyneed to be given assistance and support to develop such activities.
ii) Itis recommended that a Professional Development Plan be required for eachfaculty member to develop their scholarly productivity in their area ofexpertise.The plan should beindividualized to meet the needs of the faculty member as well as the unit.The plan will be beneficial in conductingthe annual evaluation of faculty.
iii) Itis recommended that a mentor program be developed for new faculty and that thisprogram be put into a written unit plan.Each new faculty member would be assigned to a seasoned tenured facultymember who would help the new faculty member with their professionaldevelopment plan.
iv) It isrecommended that a plan be developed and implemented to recruit, admit, retain,and graduate students, particularly students of diversity.The plan should also include strategies torecruitand retain more males.
v) Itis recommended that the M.Ed. in Elementary Education be critically examined bythe faculty to ensure that it becomesatotal programand not just a collectionof courses.To do this, planning mustbe done to involve the students (mostly part-time) in different experiencesoutside the traditional classroom.Special projects/activities, or collaborative research with facultymembers, and membership and participation in professional organizations aresome examples.
vi) It isrecommended that guidelines for use of portfolios and reflective journals bedeveloped with student and faculty input.The faculty should also determine the use of portfolios and reflectivejournals to avoid duplication.It isalso recommended that the portfolio be used by each individual studentthroughout his/her program and that it be presented to the faculty prior tograduation for performance assessment purposes.
vii) It isrecommended that a greater emphasis be placed on student research includingstudents actually applying knowledge gained in research courses by designing,conducting, and reporting on action research project related to their P-12classroom.
4) TheCommission’s consultant also identified several weaknesses.Following are recommendations for thoseweaknesses.
i) The unit should develop an internal review of programs and afaculty development seminar to ensure alignment of courses with theframework.Seminars and workshops onthe conceptual framework for P-12 educators and others would help in educatingother about the framework and education programs.
ii) Resources and planning for faculty development need to beimplemented to engage faculty in scholarly activity.A mentoring program for new faculty also should be developed.
iii) Faculty need to review course syllabi and seek suggestionsfrom colleagues from other institutions to update texts, publications, andprofessional journals used in course syllabi.
iv) The unit needs to develop criteria that ensure that studentswho come with a degree from another institution complete the approvedUSC-Spartanburg program with all required courses and experiences.
v) Faculty in the unit need to examine the Master of Educationdegree programs to ensure that they become total graduate programs.In particular, faculty need to seethemselves as mentors for graduate students and non-credit experiences need tobe developed to challenge students to help them grow professionally.
vi) The difference between faculty and graduate faculty need to bereviewed, specifically defined, and made available to all faculty.
vii) The unit needs to moveaway from the use of adjunct faculty teaching graduate level courses and movetowards full-time faculty teaching these courses.
viii) Arecruitment plan needs to be developed and implemented for the graduate degreeprograms to increase number of students and diversity.
ix) Theportfolio and reflective journal process needs to be continually evaluated andfine tuned to be sure it is providing the necessary information to makeprofessional judgments about how students have met the conceptualframework/program objectives.
x) Students in the Master of Education degree programs need toplan, conduct, and report on a research project in their classrooms.
5) Itis recommended that all programs in teacher education at the University ofSouth Carolina-Spartanburg continued with full approvalas they meet the Commission’s ProgramProductivity Standards.
Curriculum & Inst.Ed.S.ElementaryTermination*
Education Adm. & Sup.M.Ed.Approval
Special EducationB.S.Mild DisabilitiesApproval
Counseling & Dev.M.Ed.CommunityApproval
Family& Cons. Sci.Approval
Art EducationM.A.Applied StudioApproval
Family & Cons. ScienceB.S.Teacher EducationApproval
Family & Cons. ScienceM.S.Termination
Physical EducationB.S.Teacher EducationApproval
Modern LanguagesB.A.French Teacher Ed.Approval
Political ScienceB.A.Teacher EducationApproval
*The unitrecommended termination and the Commission consultant concurred.
A Continuing Accreditation visit was conducted by an NCATEBoard of Examiners team on November 1-5, 1997, for the teacher education unitat Winthrop University.The UABreported one weakness from the previous visit still existed and added two newweaknesses.These are as follows:
Weakness Continued from the Previous Visit:
- The composition of the faculty has limited cultural diversity.The cultural diversity of the faculty has decreased since the last NCATE visit.The unit does not have an explicit plan to ensure hiring and retaining a diverse faculty.
New Weaknesses Identified:
- The unit does not have a conceptual framework completed and implemented for the M.A.T program.A task force has been developing the proposed framework and it has been presented to the faculty.
- The unit does not ensure competence of graduates in most advanced programs.Candidates are not held to performance-based assessment, other than completion of courses.
At its March 1998 meeting, the NCATE Unit AccreditationBoard, after reviewing materials and reports, rendered a decision to approvecontinuation of the accreditation of the College of Education at the initialteacher preparation and advanced levels.
The consultant for the Commission on Higher Educationserved as a member of the Board of Examiners team and participated fully in thedecision-making process.Theconsultant was also responsible for reviewing the five programs that were notpart of the NCATE curriculum folio review process.The five programs reviewed are as follows:
Educational Specialist in Curriculum andInstruction:(Elementary Education,Secondary Education, and Special Education):The consultant agrees with the unit’s decision to discontinue thisdegree.It continues to have lowenrollments and graduation rates, a lack of faculty
resources, and a lack of regularly scheduled advancedcourse offerings.It is recommendedthat the Ed.S. in Curriculum and Instruction be terminated.
Master of Education in Elementary Education:It is recommended that the program becontinued with full approval.It isserving a need in the area served by Winthrop University and it meets theCommission’s Program Productivity Standards for average number of degreesawarded and average number of majors.Although the program has written goals in terms of student outcomes,there is limited diversity in terms of exit criteria and the means of ensuringthe graduate’s mastery of knowledge other than the completion of the prescribedset of courses.Faculty who supportthis program also have other responsibilities that include teaching andadvising in other graduate programs. The responsibilities cause faculty to notalways be available for advisement and instruction.Attention to the assignment of faculty will strengthen theprogram.
Master of Education in Secondary Education:(English, History, Math, SocialStudies, Biology, Family & Consumer Sciences, French, and Spanish):It is recommended that the program becontinued with full approval as it is meeting the need of licensed secondaryteachers to obtain advanced knowledge and skills in discipline work.This program is well coordinated.The discipline faculty work well with theeducation faculty to ensure that students receive the appropriate advisementthroughout their programs.The programmeets the Commission’s Program Productivity Standards in all three areas.
The Commission consultant identified six additionalweaknesses that need to be addressed.They are as follows:
- Not all advanced programs have a defined exit criteria.Although a prescribed set of courses are identified, there is not a clear statement of exit criteria.
- The overall number of programs in the unit far surpasses the total number of students attracted to the unit at the advanced level.The unit should review the productivity data and consider those programs with low productivity for termination.
3. Thereis an uneven application of preparation that significantly expands theunderstanding of the needs of diverse populations, particularly on issuesrelated to race, gender and exceptionalities.
- There is uneven engagement of faculty in scholarly activities.Records show some faculty active in publishing in refereed journals while other faculty vita reflect little scholarly activity.It is anticipated that facultybe minimally engaged in the activities of a professional organization related to the discipline taught.Minimum expectations of graduate faculty in a teaching institution would be engagement in ongoing action research as a means of encouraging student inquiry.
- Review of documents as well as campus interview reflected several references to programs offered off-site, none of which appear in the current SCCHE Inventory of Degree Programs.
- The unit has not implemented the conceptual framework across the entire curriculum in graduate programs.No evidence of a comprehensive implementation of the conceptual framework beyond the core courses was observed.
The Commission consultant was also charged with theresponsibility of applying the South Carolina Commission on Higher EducationProductivity Standards to all teacher education programs in the College ofEducation at Winthrop University.Allof the programs in teacher education meet the Commission’s Program ProductivityStandards as they meet at least one of the criteria (degrees awarded, majors,or service hours provided).However,fourteen programs were low on two of the criteria as listed below and theseshould be monitored.A plan should bedeveloped to increase and maintain enrollments in these programs.
Art Education M.A.:An average of 0.2 degrees, 1.3 majors, and 5.7 service hours werereported.
Family and Consumer Sciences B.S.:An average of 1.6 degrees, 7.0 majors, and18.2 service hours were reported.
Choral Music B.M.E.:An average of 4.5 degrees, 42.8 majors, with no service hoursreported.
Music Education M.M.E.:An average of 4.8 majors, 4.5 degrees awarded, with no servicehours reported.
Physical Education M.S.:An average of 3.9 majors, 4.4 degrees awarded, with 6.1 servicehours.
English B.A.:An average of 2.6 degrees awarded, 4.0 majors, with no service hoursreported.
Chemistry B.S.:An average of 0.4 degrees awarded, 2.7 major, with no service hoursreported.
Biology B.S.:An average of 1.4 degrees awarded, 13.4 majors and no service hoursreported.
History B.A.:An average of 2.0 degrees awarded, 32.3 majors, with no service hoursreported.
Political Science B..:An average of 0.4 degrees awarded, 5.1 majors, with no servicehours reported.
Sociology B.A.:An average of 0.2 degrees awarded, 3.6 majors, with no service hoursreported.
Theater B..:An average of 0.2 degrees awarded, 0.8 majors, with no service hoursreported.
Art B.A.:An average of 1.6 degrees awarded, 18.5 majors, and no service hoursreported.
1) WinthropUniversity was granted continuing accreditation by NCATE at both the initialteacher preparation and advanced levels in March, 1998.The College of Education as the teachereducation unit is approved.Programsshould be continued with full approval.
2) Thefour weaknesses identified in the UAB report must be dealt with by the Collegeof Education and progress on their removal will be submitted in their annualreport to NCATE.It is recommended thatthe College of Education move quickly to remedy the weaknesses identified.
3) Fiveprograms were reviewed by the Commission’s consultant since they were not partof the NCATE folio review process.Oneof the programs (Educational Specialist in Curriculum and Instruction) wasreported by the unit as being terminated.It is recommended that the unit’s decision be supported and the degreebe terminated.
4) Thefour remaining programs reviewed by the Commission consultant are recommended forapproval and continuation (Master of Education in Elementary Education; Masterof Education in Secondary Education;Master of Science in Business Education; and Master of Science in Familyand Consumer Sciences).However, someprograms were identified with weaknesses and the following recommendations aremade to help improve them.
i) Masterof Education in Elementary Education:It is recommended that an internal review be made as to how faculty areassigned to serve the program with priority being given to services andinstruction for the Master of Education in Elementary Degreeprogram.Faculty currently are assignedto multiple responsibilities which split their time and attention.Busy adult students want to know they cancount on reaching program faculty whenever they have programmatic concerns.
ii) Itis recommended that the unit establish a process of establishing and clarifyingstatements governing faculty scholarly activity including involvement offaculty in the procedure.Expectationsand guidelines should be developed and shared with all faculty.Individual professional development plansshould be made part of each faculty member’s responsibilities.Sufficient resources and other support toachieve and maintain the minimum expectations that are developed must beprovided.Annual evaluation of facultyshould include the professional development plan and demonstration by facultyof how they are meeting expectations.
iii) Theunit must determine if it is offering more than 50 percent of programs atoff-site locations.If it is, then itmust take steps to have such programs approved by the Commission as well ashave them included in the SCCHE Inventory of Degree Programs.
iv) The unitshould continue to examine and revise the advanced coursework and requirementsto ensure that all objectives in the graduate conceptual framework have beenaddressed.
5) Allprograms in teacher education at Winthrop University meet the South CarolinaCommission on Higher Education Productivity Standards on at least one of thecriteria as required.However,thirteen programs did not meet two of the criteria and should be closelymonitored in the future.A plan must bedeveloped to recruit and maintain students in these programs or considerationbe given to terminate.
Recommendations for FuturePrograms
Obviously, there will be new requests for teachereducation programs in the future.Someare probably already underway in the minds of faculty at the variousinstitutions.Before any new programshould be implemented there are some steps that will be helpful in making adecision.They are as follows:
· a comprehensive needs assessment should be conductedincluding issues
of duplication of existing programs.
· a fiscal impact study should be undertaken includingthe potential
for generating income, and also the necessary human andfinancial
resources that will be needed to ensure a high qualityprogram.
· the role of technology should be thoroughly investigated.
· the use of distance education to deliver the programshould be explored.
· implementing a pilot program for a period of timeestablishing
evaluation criteria in advance to be utilized in reviewingthe program.
Too often, new programs areimplemented without the necessary resources, both human and financial, tosupport a quality program.Almostwithout exception, the faculty on each of the eleven campuses are alreadycarrying heavy loads, adding additional programs without additional facultywould not be beneficial.
In the opinion of the consultantsthere are some program areas that need to be explored.They are specific programs to serve urbanand rural settings, middle schools, special education, and technology.There is especially a need to help teachersincorporate technology(not justcomputers) into the teaching-learning process in their classrooms.For example, computer- assisted instructionin the classroom is on the verge of changing the way students learn.Teachers need help in learning how toutilize technology to create new learning activities for their students.